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Free Radical Biology and Medicine (FRBM)

Redox regulation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV via oxidation of its active-site cysteine residue

Publication date: January 2019 Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 130 Author(s): Tsuyoshi Takata, Jun Kimura, Hideshi Ihara, Naoya Hatano, Yukihiro Tsuchiya, Yasuo Watanabe AbstractWe have recently reported that Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) is inactivated by reactive sulfur species via polysulfidation of the active-site Cys residue. Here, we show that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) limit CaMKIV activity at the same active-site Cys residue through oxidation and downstream signaling in cells. CaMKIV is phosphorylated at Thr196 by its upstream CaMK kinase (CaMKK), which induces its full activity. In vitro incubation of CaMKIV with H2O2 resulted in reversible inhibition of CaMKK-induced phospho-Thr196 and the consequent inactivation of CaMKIV. In contrast, mutated CaMKIV (C198V) was refractory to the H2O2-induced enzyme inhibition. In transfected cells expressing CaMKIV, Ca2+ ionophore-induced CaMKIV phosphorylation at Thr196 was decreased upon treatment with H2O2, whereas cells expressing mutant CaMKIV (C198V) were resistant to H2O2 treatment. Modification of free thiol with N-ethylmaleimide revealed that Cys198 in CaMKIV is a target for S-oxidation. Additionally, the Ca2+ influx-induced phospho-Thr196 of endogenous CaMKIV was also inhibited upon treatment with H2O2 in Jurkat T-lymphocytes and cerebellar granule cells. Phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) at Ser133, which is downstream of CaMKIV, was also decreased upon treatment with H2O2. Thus, our results indicate that oxidation stress regulates cellular function by decreasing the activity of CaMKIV through Cys198 oxidation. Graphical abstract

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Amelioration of whole abdominal irradiation-induced intestinal injury in mice with 3,3′-Diindolylmethane (DIM)

Publication date: January 2019 Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 130 Author(s): Lu Lu, Mian Jiang, Changchun Zhu, Junbo He, Saijun Fan AbstractIonizing radiation-induced intestinal injury is a catastrophic disease with limited effective therapies. 3,3′-Diindolylmethane (DIM), a potent antioxidant agent, has previously been shown to ameliorate hematopoietic injury in a murine model of total body radiation injury, but its effects on ionizing radiation-induced intestinal damage are not clear. Here, we demonstrate that administration of DIM not only protects mice against whole abdominal irradiation (WAI)-induced lethality and weight loss but also ameliorates crypt-villus structural and functional injury of the small intestine. In addition, treatment with DIM significant enhances WAI-induced reductions in Lgr5+ ISCs and their progeny cells, including lysozyme+ Paneth cells, Villin+ enterocytes and Ki67+ instantaneous amplifying cells, thus promoting small intestine repair following WAI exposure. Notably, the expression of Nrf2 increased, while the number of apoptotic cells and the expression of γH2AX decreased in the small intestines of DIM-treated mice compared to mice treated with vehicle following WAI. In vitro, we demonstrated that DIM protected human intestinal epithelial cell-6 (HIEC-6) against ionizing radiation, leading to increased cell vitality. Mechanistically, the radioprotective effect of DIM was likely attributable to its anti-DNA damage effects in irradiated HIEC-6 cells. Moreover, these changes were related to reduction in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and increased the activities of antioxidant enzymatic in irradiated HIEC-6 cells. Additionally, the DIM radioprotective effects on the intestine resulted in the restoration of the WAI-shifted gut bacteria composition in mice. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that the beneficial properties of DIM mitigate intestinal radiation injury, which provides a novel strategy for improving the therapeutic effects of irradiation-induced i

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Berberine mitigates high glucose-potentiated platelet aggregation and apoptosis by modulating aldose reductase and NADPH oxidase activity

Publication date: January 2019 Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 130 Author(s): Manoj Paul, Mahadevappa Hemshekhar, Kempaiah Kemparaju, Kesturu S. Girish AbstractDiabetes mellitus (DM) is a serious metabolic disorder affecting millions of people worldwide. The high rate of mortality and morbidity during DM is attributed to the increased atherothrombotic events due to platelet activation and apoptosis leading to macro and micro vascular occlusions. The platelet hyper-reactivity and apoptosis during DM is accounted for the accumulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to increased aldose reductase (AR) and NADPH oxidase (NOX) activities. Considering aspirin insensitivity in DM patients, new therapies targeting the underlying mechanism is urgently warranted. Berberine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, from Chinese folk medicine has been demonstrated with several anti-diabetic effects. Therefore, we evaluated whether berberine inhibits high glucose potentiated platelet aggregation, apoptosis and further evaluated the mechanism of its action in platelets. Berberine was found to inhibit platelet aggregation, superoxide production via modulating AR, NOX, and glutathione reductase activities in high glucose (HG) treated platelets. Correlated with this, berberine inhibited, calcium release, ERK activation, α- and dense granule release and platelet adhesive properties. In addition, berberine inhibited p38-p53 mediated BAX activation, mitochondrial dysfunction and platelet apoptosis induced by HG. The platelet protective effect of berberine by inhibiting AR and NOX in high glucose-treated platelets suggest that berberine could be developed as a potential therapeutic molecule in the treating pathologies associated with DM. Graphical abstract

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Validation of a food frequency questionnaire assessing dietary polyphenol exposure using the method of triads

Publication date: January 2019 Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 130 Author(s): Axelle Hoge, Michèle Guillaume, Adelin Albert, Jessica Tabart, Nadia Dardenne, Anne-Françoise Donneau, Claire Kevers, Jean-Olivier Defraigne, Joël Pincemail AbstractWhen conducting research on polyphenols and their effects on health, it is of primary importance to use standardised and validated dietary assessment tools. This paper aims at assessing the validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for quantifying dietary polyphenol exposure among healthy adults using the method of triads. Fifty-three healthy adults, aged 20–60, were included in the study. Total dietary polyphenol intake (TDP) estimated by the FFQ was compared with TDP measured by a 3-day food record (FR) and with urinary excretion levels of total polyphenols (TUP). Pearson correlations were calculated between methods. Validity coefficients (VC) were estimated between the three measurements and the ‘unknown’ true intake. There was a strong correlation between both dietary methods (r = 0.70, p < 0.0001). A moderate but significant association was observed between FFQ-derived TDP and TUP (r = 0.32, p = 0.020). The method of triads yielded a VC for the FFQ of 0.63 (95%CI: 0.41–0.84), indicating a strong relationship between FFQ-derived TDP and the true polyphenol intake. This study shows that the FFQ is an adequate tool not only for measuring dietary polyphenol exposure in nutrition epidemiological studies but also for guiding clinicians in dietary advice and counselling. Graphical abstract

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Endurance training restores spatially distinct cardiac mitochondrial function and myocardial contractility in ovariectomized rats

Publication date: January 2019 Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 130 Author(s): Elis Aguiar Morra, Paula Lopes Rodrigues, Itamar Couto Guedes de Jesus, Patrícia Ribeiro Do Val Lima, Renata Andrade Ávila, Tadeu Ériton Caliman Zanardo, Breno Valentim Nogueira, Donald M. Bers, Silvia Guatimosim, Ivanita Stefanon, Rogério Faustino Ribeiro Júnior AbstractWe previously demonstrated that the loss of female hormones induces cardiac and mitochondrial dysfunction in the female heart. Here, we show the impact of endurance training for twelve weeks, a nonpharmacological therapy against cardiovascular disease caused by ovariectomy and its contribution to cardiac contractility, mitochondrial quality control, bioenergetics and oxidative damage. We found that ovariectomy induced cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction by decreasing SERCA2 and increasing phospholamban protein expression. Endurance training restored myocardial contractility, SERCA2 levels, increased calcium transient in ovariectomized rats but did not change phospholamban protein expression or cardiac hypertrophy. Additionally, ovariectomy decreased the amount of intermyofibrillar mitochondria and induced mitochondrial fragmentation that were accompanied by decreased levels of mitofusin 1, PGC-1α, NRF-1, total AMPK-α and mitochondrial Tfam. Endurance training prevented all these features except for mitofusin 1. Ovariectomy reduced O2 consumption, elevated O2.- release and increased Ca2+-induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in both mitochondrial subpopulations. Ovariectomy also increased NOX-4 protein expression in the heart, reduced mitochondrial Mn-SOD, catalase protein expression and increased protein carbonylation in both mitochondrial subpopulations, which were prevented by endurance training. Taken together, our findings show that endurance training prevented cardiac contractile dysfunction and mitochondrial quality control in ovariectomized rats. Graphical abstract

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Redox Biology

Diphthamide affects selenoprotein expression: Diphthamide deficiency reduces selenocysteine incorporation, decreases selenite sensitivity and pre-disposes to oxidative stress

Publication date: January 2019 Source: Redox Biology, Volume 20 Author(s): Klaus Mayer, Olaf Mundigl, Hubert Kettenberger, Fabian Birzele, Sebastian Stahl, Ira Pastan, Ulrich Brinkmann AbstractThe diphthamide modification of translation elongation factor 2 is highly conserved in eukaryotes and archaebacteria. Nevertheless, cells lacking diphthamide can carry out protein synthesis and are viable. We have analyzed the phenotypes of diphthamide deficient cells and found that diphthamide deficiency reduces selenocysteine incorporation into selenoproteins. Additional phenotypes resulting from diphthamide deficiency include altered tRNA-synthetase and selenoprotein transcript levels, hypersensitivity to oxidative stress and increased selenite tolerance. Diphthamide-eEF2 occupies the aminoacyl-tRNA translocation site at which UGA either stalls translation or decodes selenocysteine. Its position is in close proximity and mutually exclusive to the ribosomal binding site of release/recycling factor ABCE1, which harbors a redox-sensitive Fe-S cluster and, like diphthamide, is present in eukaryotes and archaea but not in eubacteria. Involvement of diphthamide in UGA-SECIS decoding may explain deregulated selenoprotein expression and as a consequence oxidative stress, NFkB activation and selenite tolerance in diphthamide deficient cells.

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Enhanced mitochondrial pyruvate transport elicits a robust ROS production to sensitize the antitumor efficacy of interferon-γ in colon cancer

Publication date: January 2019 Source: Redox Biology, Volume 20 Author(s): YunYan Tai, Fengjun Cao, Mingxing Li, Pindong Li, Tao Xu, Xuanbin Wang, Yuandong Yu, Bing Gu, Xiongjie Yu, Xiaojun Cai, Feng Ao, Peng Ge, Longchao Xiang, Bingbing Yang, Yingpin Jiang, Yong Li AbstractMetabolic reprogramming is a feature of cancer cells and crucial for tumor growth and metastasis. Interferon-γ (IFNγ) is a cytokine that plays a pivotal role in host antitumor immunity. However, little is known about the roles of metabolic reprogramming in immune responses. Here, we show that colon cancer cells reprogram metabolism to coordinate proper cellular responses to IFNγ by downregulating mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC)1 and 2 via STAT3 signaling. Forced overexpression of MPC promote the production of reactive oxygen species and enhance the apoptosis induced by IFNγ in colon cancer cells. Moreover, inhibiting STAT3 sensitize the antitumor efficacy of IFN-γ against colon cancer cells. Our findings present a previously unrecognized mechanism that colon cancer manipulate to resist IFNγ mediated antitumor immunity that have implications for targeting a unique aspect of this disease. Graphical abstract

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ARC regulates programmed necrosis and myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury through the inhibition of mPTP opening

Publication date: January 2019 Source: Redox Biology, Volume 20 Author(s): Tao Xu, Wei Ding, Xiang Ao, Xianming Chu, Qinggong Wan, Yu Wang, Dandan Xiao, Wanpeng Yu, Mengyang Li, Fei Yu, Jianxun Wang AbstractNecrosis is a key factor in myocardial injury during cardiac pathological processes, such as myocardial infarction (MI), ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and heart failure. Increasing evidence suggests that several aspects of necrosis are programmed and tightly regulated, so targeting the necrosis process has become a new trend for myocardial protection. Multiple cellular signaling pathways have been implicated in necrotic cell death, such as the death receptor-mediated extrinsic and mitochondrial intrinsic pathways. However, the precise mechanisms underlying myocardial necrosis remain unclear. In this study, we showed that apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC) participated in the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway and inhibited myocardial necrosis by preventing the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). ARC attenuated necrotic cell death triggered by exposure to 500 μM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the cardiomyocyte cell line H9c2. In mice, ARC ameliorated myocardial necrosis, reduced the myocardial infarct size and improved long-term heart function during I/R injury. Mechanistically, it has been shown that the inhibition of necrosis by ARC was dependent on its mitochondrial localization and that ARC prevented the opening of mPTP by targeting CypD, the main regulator of mPTP. In addition, ARC expression was negatively regulated by the transcription factor p53 at the transcriptional level during the necrosis process. These findings identified the novel role of ARC in myocardial necrosis and delineated the p53-ARC-CypD/mPTP necrosis pathway during ischemia- and oxidative stress-induced myocardial damage, which can provide a new strategy for cardiac protection. Graphical abstract

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Increased SOD2 in the diaphragm contributes to exercise-induced protection against ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction

Publication date: January 2019 Source: Redox Biology, Volume 20 Author(s): Aaron B. Morton, Ashley J. Smuder, Michael P. Wiggs, Stephanie E. Hall, Bumsoo Ahn, J. Matthew Hinkley, Noriko Ichinoseki-Sekine, Andres Mor Huertas, Mustafa Ozdemir, Toshinori Yoshihara, Nicholas R. Wawrzyniak, Scott K. Powers AbstractMechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving intervention for many critically ill patients. Unfortunately, prolonged MV results in rapid diaphragmatic atrophy and contractile dysfunction, collectively termed ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction (VIDD). Recent evidence reveals that endurance exercise training, performed prior to MV, protects the diaphragm against VIDD. While the mechanism(s) responsible for this exercise-induced protection against VIDD remain unknown, increased diaphragm antioxidant expression may be required. To investigate the role that increased antioxidants play in this protection, we tested the hypothesis that elevated levels of the mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) is required to achieve exercise-induced protection against VIDD. Cause and effect was investigated in two ways. First, we prevented the exercise-induced increase in diaphragmatic SOD2 via delivery of an antisense oligonucleotide targeted against SOD2 post-exercise. Second, using transgene overexpression of SOD2, we determined the effects of increased SOD2 in the diaphragm independent of exercise training. Results from these experiments revealed that prevention of the exercise-induced increases in diaphragmatic SOD2 results in a loss of exercise-mediated protection against MV-induced diaphragm atrophy and a partial loss of protection against MV-induced diaphragmatic contractile dysfunction. In contrast, transgenic overexpression of SOD2 in the diaphragm, independent of exercise, did not protect against MV-induced diaphragmatic atrophy and provided only partial protection against MV-induced diaphragmatic contractile dysfunction. Collectively, these results demonstrate that increased diaphragmati

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Resveratrol as a new inhibitor of immunoproteasome prevents PTEN degradation and attenuates cardiac hypertrophy after pressure overload

Publication date: January 2019 Source: Redox Biology, Volume 20 Author(s): Chen Chen, Lei-Xin Zou, Qiu-Yue Lin, Xiao Yan, Hai-Lian Bi, Xin Xie, Shuai Wang, Qing-Shan Wang, Yun-Long Zhang, Hui-Hua Li AbstractSustained cardiac hypertrophy is a major cause of heart failure (HF) and death. Recent studies have demonstrated that resveratrol (RES) exerts a protective role in hypertrophic diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are not fully elucidated. In this study, cardiac hypertrophic remodeling in mice were established by pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography and invasive pressure-volume analysis. Cardiomyocyte size was detected by wheat germ agglutinin staining. The protein and gene expressions of signaling mediators and hypertrophic markers were examined. Our results showed that administration of RES significantly suppressed pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and apoptosis and improved in vivo heart function in mice. RES also reversed pre-established hypertrophy and restoring contractile dysfunction induced by chronic pressure overload. Moreover, RES treatment blocked TAC-induced increase of immunoproteasome activity and catalytic subunit expression (β1i, β2i and β5i), which inhibited PTEN degradation thereby leading to inactivation of AKT/mTOR and activation of AMPK signals. Further, blocking PTEN by the specific inhibitor VO-Ohpic significantly attenuated RES inhibitory effect on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vivo and in vitro. Taken together, our data suggest that RES is a novel inhibitor of immunoproteasome activity, and may represent a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of hypertrophic diseases.

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