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Free Radical Biology and Medicine (FRBM)

Pretreatment with Korean red ginseng or dimethyl fumarate attenuates reactive gliosis and confers sustained neuroprotection against cerebral hypoxic-ischemic damage by an Nrf2-dependent mechanism

Publication date: 1 February 2019 Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 131 Author(s): Lei Liu, Mary K. Vollmer, Abdullah S. Ahmad, Victoria M. Fernandez, Hocheol Kim, Sylvain Doré AbstractThe transcriptional factor Nrf2, a master regulator of oxidative stress and inflammation that are tightly linked to the development and progression of cerebral ischemia pathology, plays a vital role in inducing the endogenous neuroprotective process. Here, hypoxic-ischemia (HI) was performed in adult Nrf2 knockout and wildtype mice that were orally pretreated either with standardized Korean red ginseng extract (Ginseng) or dimethyl fumarate (DMF), two candidate Nrf2 inducers, to determine whether the putative protection was through an Nrf2-dependent mechanism involving the attenuation of reactive gliosis. Results show that Nrf2 target cytoprotective genes were distinctly elevated following HI. Pretreatment with Ginseng or DMF elicited robust neuroprotection against the deterioration of acute cerebral ischemia damage in an Nrf2-dependent manner as revealed by the reductions of neurological deficits score, infarct volume and brain edema, as well as enhanced expression levels of Nrf2 target antioxidant proteins and anti-inflammation mediators. In both ischemic striatum and cortex, the dynamic pattern of attenuated reactive gliosis in astrocytes and microglia, including affected astrocytic dysfunction in glutamate metabolism and water homeostasis, correlated well with the Nrf2-dependent neuroprotection by Ginseng or DMF. Furthermore, such neuroprotective benefits extended to the late phase of ischemic brain damage after HI, as evidenced by improvements in neurobehavioral outcomes, infarct volume and brain edema. Overall, pretreatment with Ginseng or DMF identically attenuates reactive gliosis and confers long-lasting neuroprotective efficacy against ischemic brain damage through an Nrf2-dependent mechanism. This study also provides new insight into the profitable contribution of reactive gliosis in the Nrf2-dependent ne

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PARP1-LSD1 functional interplay controls transcription of SOD2 that protects human pro-inflammatory macrophages from death under an oxidative condition

Publication date: 1 February 2019 Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 131 Author(s): Paulina Tokarz, Tomasz Płoszaj, Zsolt Regdon, László Virág, Agnieszka Robaszkiewicz AbstractThe function of macrophages makes them vulnerable to several sources of stress and damage, and thus there is a considerable requirement for some form of resilient molecular defence. Differentiation of human macrophages and their further pro-inflammatory (M1) polarization with bacterial endotoxin is associated with increased transcription of PARP1 and SOD2. The latter gene responded immediately to LPS with high NFκB-dependent expression rate, and the resulting enzyme made M1 macrophages resistant to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and associated cell death. LPS-induced recruitment of RELA to SOD2 promoter was accompanied by release of PARP1 and LSD1 from chromatin and increased H3K4 di- and tri-methylation. PARP1 dissociation from SOD2 promoter occurred at an early stage of SOD2 transcriptional activation. This event contributed to the termination of mRNA synthesis at a later stage of macrophage polarization by allowing LSD1 to rebind to the SOD2 promoter. LSD1 removed transcription-promoting methylation of H3K4 and led to displacement of RELA. Analysis of temporal changes at the SOD2 promoter indicated a direct mutual interdependence between PARP1, LSD1, H3K4 methylation and the ongoing SOD2 transcription, which correlated positively with both PARP1 abundance on the chromatin and dimethylation of H3K4, but negatively with LSD1 and chromatin compaction in LPS-treated macrophages. Deficiency of LSD1 activity and maintenance of PARP1 at the SOD2 promoter substantially upregulated SOD2 level, thereby further increasing resistance of M1 macrophages to hydrogen peroxide. Inhibitors of LSD1 and PARP1 poisons that capture the latter enzyme on the chromatin seem to be prosurvival molecular tools protecting polarized macrophages from certain pro-oxidative conditions. Graphical abstract

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Neuropeptide signaling regulates the susceptibility of developing C. elegans to anoxia

Publication date: 1 February 2019 Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 131 Author(s): Shachee Doshi, Emma Price, Justin Landis, Urva Barot, Mariangela Sabatella, Hannes Lans, Robert G. Kalb AbstractInadequate delivery of oxygen to organisms during development can lead to cell dysfunction/death and life-long disabilities. Although the susceptibility of developing cells to low oxygen conditions changes with maturation, the cellular and molecular pathways that govern responses to low oxygen are incompletely understood. Here we show that developing Caenorhabditis elegans are substantially more sensitive to anoxia than adult animals and that this sensitivity is controlled by nervous system generated hormones (e.g., neuropeptides). A screen of neuropeptide genes identified and validated nlp-40 and its receptor aex-2 as a key regulator of anoxic survival in developing worms. The survival-promoting action of impaired neuropeptide signaling does not rely on five known stress resistance pathways and is specific to anoxic insult. Together, these data highlight a novel cell non-autonomous pathway that regulates the susceptibility of developing organisms to anoxia. Graphical abstract

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LPS protects macrophages from AIF-independent parthanatos by downregulation of PARP1 expression, induction of SOD2 expression, and a metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis

Publication date: 1 February 2019 Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 131 Author(s): Zsolt Regdon, Agnieszka Robaszkiewicz, Katalin Kovács, Żaneta Rygielska, Csaba Hegedűs, Khaldon Bodoor, Éva Szabó, László Virág AbstractIn inflamed tissues or during ischemia-reperfusion episodes, activated macrophages produce large amounts of reactive species and are, thus, exposed to the damaging effects of reactive species. Here, our goal was to investigate the mechanism whereby activated macrophages protect themselves from oxidant stress-induced cell death. Hydrogen peroxide-treated mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) and THP-1 human monocyte-derived cells were chosen as models. We found a gradual development of resistance: first in monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation, and subsequently after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure. Investigating the mechanism of the latter, we found that exposure to intense hydrogen peroxide stress causes poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) dependent programmed necrotic cell death, also known as parthanatos, as indicated by the protected status of PARP-1 knockout BMDMs and the protective effect of the PARP inhibitor PJ-34. In hydrogen peroxide-treated macrophages, however, apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) proved dispensable for parthanatos; nuclear translocation of AIF was not observed. A key event in LPS-mediated protection against the hydrogen peroxide-induced AIF independent parthanatos was downregulation of PARP1 mRNA and protein. The importance of this event was confirmed by overexpression of PARP1 in THP1 cells using a viral promoter, which lead to stable PARP1 levels even after LPS treatment and unresponsiveness to LPS-induced cytoprotection. In BMDMs, LPS-induced PARP1 suppression lead to prevention of NAD+ depletion. Moreover, LPS also induced expression of antioxidant proteins (superoxide dismutase-2, thioredoxin reductase 1 and peroxiredoxin) and triggered a metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis, also known as the Warburg effect. In summary, we provide evidenc

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Melatonin-induced demethylation of antioxidant genes increases antioxidant capacity through RORα in cumulus cells of prepubertal lambs

Publication date: 1 February 2019 Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 131 Author(s): Yi Fang, Jinlong Zhang, Yihai Li, Xiaofei Guo, Junjie Li, Rongzhen Zhong, Xiaosheng Zhang AbstractPhysical damage and oxidative stress may occur in prepubertal cumulus cells, due to insufficient glutathione synthesis. To determine potential epigenetic mechanisms related to antioxidant effects of melatonin on ovine prepubertal cumulus cells, 30 lambs, 4-wk-old were randomly allocated into two groups: a control (C, n = 20) group and a melatonin (M, n = 10) group given a subcutaneous implant containing 18 mg melatonin. All lambs were superovulated (250 IU FSH and 250 IU eCG). Cumulus cells from germinal vesicle stage cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected by ovarian follicular aspiration and dissociated with hyaluronidase. Compared to the C group, the M group had greater superovulation, better antioxidant capacity, a higher proportion of fully expanded COCs and a lower proportion of apoptotic cumulus cells (P < 0.05). Melatonin up-regulated mRNA expression of genes for melatonin receptors MT1 and nuclear binding site RORα, antioxidants (SOD1, GPx4 and CAT) and cumulus cell expansion (PTX3, HAS2 and PTGS2), as well as Bcl2, but down-regulated expression of Bax (P < 0.05). Regarding epigenetics, there were less methylation at five CpG sites of SOD1, three CpG sites of GPx4 and two CpG sites of CAT in M versus C groups (P <  0.05), leading to lower total methylation of SOD1, GPx4 and CAT promoters region on M group (P < 0.05). In a mechanistic study, addition of MT1 or RORα antagonist increased ROS and MDA concentrations, but decreased T-AOC, GPx, CAT and T-SOD concentrations (P < 0.05), whereas there were no significant difference between the melatonin and MT2 antagonist treatment groups for T-AOC, GPx, CAT and T-SOD concentrations. Furthermore, addition of RORα agonist decreased total DNA methylation of SOD1, GPx4 and CAT, with no significant difference after MT1 agonist treatment. These stud

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Redox Biology

AVE 0991 attenuates oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis via Mas/PKA/CREB/UCP-2 pathway after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

Publication date: January 2019 Source: Redox Biology, Volume 20 Author(s): Jun Mo, Budbazar Enkhjargal, Zachary D. Travis, Keren Zhou, Pei Wu, Guangyu Zhang, Qiquan Zhu, Tongyu Zhang, Jianhua Peng, Weilin Xu, Umut Ocak, Yili Chen, Jiping Tang, Jianmin Zhang, John H. Zhang AbstractOxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis have been demonstrated to be key features in early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Previous studies have indicated that Mas receptor activation initiates an anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic role in the brain. However, whether Mas activation can attenuate oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis after SAH remains unknown. To investigate the beneficial effect of Mas on oxidative stress injury and neuronal apoptosis induced by SAH, a total of 196 rats were subjected to an endovascular perforation model of SAH. AVE 0991 (AVE), a selective agonist of Mas, was administered intranasally 1 h after SAH induction. A779, a selective inhibitor of Mas, and small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) for UCP-2 were administered by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v) injection at 1 h and 48 h before SAH induction respectively. Neurological tests, immunofluorescence, TUNEL, Fluoro-Jade C, DHE staining, and Western blot experiments were performed. We found that Mas activation with AVE significantly improved neurobehavioral scores and reduced oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis in SAH+AVE group compared with SAH+vehicle group. Moreover, AVE treatment significantly promoted phosphorylation of CREB and the expression UCP-2, as well as upregulated expression of Bcl-2 and downregulation of Romo-1 and Bax. The protective effects of AVE were reversed by i.c.v injection of A779 and UCP-2 siRNA in SAH+AVE+A779 and SAH+AVE+UCP-2 siRNA groups, respectively. In conclusion, our data provides evidence that Mas activation with AVE reduces oxidative stress injury and neuronal apoptosis through Mas/PKA/p-CREB/UCP-2 pathway after SAH. Furthermore, our study indicates that Mas may be a novel therapeutic treatme

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Selenium-binding protein 1 (SELENBP1) is a marker of mature adipocytes

Publication date: January 2019 Source: Redox Biology, Volume 20 Author(s): Holger Steinbrenner, Mustafa Micoogullari, Ngoc Anh Hoang, Ina Bergheim, Lars-Oliver Klotz, Helmut Sies AbstractSelenium-binding protein 1 (SELENBP1) has recently been reported to catalyse the oxidation of methanethiol, an organosulfur compound produced by gut microbiota. Two of the reaction products of methanethiol oxidation, hydrogen peroxide and hydrogen sulphide, serve as signalling molecules for cell differentiation. Indeed, colonocyte differentiation has been found to be associated with SELENBP1 induction. Here, we show that SELENBP1 is induced when 3T3-L1 preadipocytes undergo terminal differentiation and maturation to adipocytes. SELENBP1 induction succeeded the up-regulation of known marker proteins of white adipocytes and the intracellular accumulation of lipids. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed predominant cytoplasmic localisation of SELENBP1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, as demonstrated by co-staining with the key lipogenic enzyme, acetyl-CoA-carboxylase (ACC), located in cytosol. In differentiating 3T3-L1 cells, the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) likewise suppressed SELENBP1 induction, adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation. However, lipid accumulation per se is not linked to SELENBP1 induction, as hepatic SELENBP1 was down-regulated in high fructose-fed mice despite increased lipogenesis in the liver and development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In conclusion, SELENBP1 is a marker of cell differentiation/maturation rather than being linked to lipogenesis/lipid accumulation. Graphical abstract

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Therapeutic potential of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ in mitochondrial-ROS induced sensorineural hearing loss caused by Idh2 deficiency

Publication date: January 2019 Source: Redox Biology, Volume 20 Author(s): Ye-Ri Kim, Jeong-In Baek, Sung Hwan Kim, Min-A Kim, Byeonghyeon Lee, Nari Ryu, Kyung-Hee Kim, Deok-Gyun Choi, Hye-Min Kim, Michael P. Murphy, Greg Macpherson, Yeon-Sik Choo, Jinwoong Bok, Kyu-Yup Lee, Jeen-Woo Park, Un-Kyung Kim AbstractMitochondrial NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) is a major NADPH-producing enzyme which is essential for maintaining the mitochondrial redox balance in cells. We sought to determine whether IDH2 deficiency induces mitochondrial dysfunction and modulates auditory function, and investigated the protective potential of an antioxidant agent against reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced cochlear damage in Idh2 knockout (Idh2−/−) mice. Idh2 deficiency leads to damages to hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in the cochlea and ultimately to apoptotic cell death and progressive sensorineural hearing loss in Idh2−/− mice. Loss of IDH2 activity led to decreased levels of NADPH and glutathione causing abnormal ROS accumulation and oxidative damage, which might trigger apoptosis signal in hair cells and SGNs in Idh2−/− mice. We performed ex vivo experiments to determine whether administration of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants might protect or induce recovery of cells from ROS-induced apoptosis in Idh2-deficient mouse cochlea. MitoQ almost completely neutralized the H2O2-induced ototoxicity, as the survival rate of Idh2−/− hair cells were restored to normal levels. In addition, the lack of IDH2 led to the accumulation of mitochondrial ROS and the depolarization of ΔΨm, resulting in hair cell loss. In the present study, we identified that IDH2 is indispensable for the functional maintenance and survival of hair cells and SGNs. Moreover, the hair cell degeneration caused by IDH2 deficiency can be prevented by MitoQ, which suggests that Idh2−/− mice could be a valuable animal model for evaluating the therapeutic effects of various antioxidant candidates to overcome ROS-induced hearing loss.

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Proteasome lid bridges mitochondrial stress with Cdc53/Cullin1 NEDDylation status

Publication date: January 2019 Source: Redox Biology, Volume 20 Author(s): L. Bramasole, A. Sinha, S. Gurevich, M. Radzinski, Y. Klein, N. Panat, E. Gefen, T. Rinaldi, D. Jimenez-Morales, J. Johnson, N.J. Krogan, N. Reis, D. Reichmann, M.H. Glickman, E. Pick AbstractCycles of Cdc53/Cullin1 rubylation (a.k.a NEDDylation) protect ubiquitin-E3 SCF (Skp1-Cullin1-F-box protein) complexes from self-destruction and play an important role in mediating the ubiquitination of key protein substrates involved in cell cycle progression, development, and survival. Cul1 rubylation is balanced by the COP9 signalosome (CSN), a multi-subunit derubylase that shows 1:1 paralogy to the 26S proteasome lid. The turnover of SCF substrates and their relevance to various diseases is well studied, yet, the extent by which environmental perturbations influence Cul1 rubylation/derubylation cycles per se is still unclear. In this study, we show that the level of cellular oxidation serves as a molecular switch, determining Cullin1 rubylation/derubylation ratio. We describe a mutant of the proteasome lid subunit, Rpn11 that exhibits accumulated levels of Cullin1-Rub1 conjugates, a characteristic phenotype of csn mutants. By dissecting between distinct phenotypes of rpn11 mutants, proteasome and mitochondria dysfunction, we were able to recognize the high reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during the transition of cells into mitochondrial respiration, as a checkpoint of Cullin1 rubylation in a reversible manner. Thus, the study adds the rubylation cascade to the list of cellular pathways regulated by redox homeostasis. Graphical abstract

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Stable integration of the Mrx1-roGFP2 biosensor to monitor dynamic changes of the mycothiol redox potential in Corynebacterium glutamicum

Publication date: January 2019 Source: Redox Biology, Volume 20 Author(s): Quach Ngoc Tung, Vu Van Loi, Tobias Busche, Andreas Nerlich, Maren Mieth, Johanna Milse, Jörn Kalinowski, Andreas C. Hocke, Haike Antelmann AbstractMycothiol (MSH) functions as major low molecular weight (LMW) thiol in the industrially important Corynebacterium glutamicum. In this study, we genomically integrated an Mrx1-roGFP2 biosensor in C. glutamicum to measure dynamic changes of the MSH redox potential (EMSH) during the growth and under oxidative stress. C. glutamicum maintains a highly reducing intrabacterial EMSH throughout the growth curve with basal EMSH levels of ~− 296 mV. Consistent with its H2O2 resistant phenotype, C. glutamicum responds only weakly to 40 mM H2O2, but is rapidly oxidized by low doses of NaOCl. We further monitored basal EMSH changes and the H2O2 response in various mutants which are compromised in redox-signaling of ROS (OxyR, SigH) and in the antioxidant defense (MSH, Mtr, KatA, Mpx, Tpx). While the probe was constitutively oxidized in the mshC and mtr mutants, a smaller oxidative shift in basal EMSH was observed in the sigH mutant. The catalase KatA was confirmed as major H2O2 detoxification enzyme required for fast biosensor re-equilibration upon return to non-stress conditions. In contrast, the peroxiredoxins Mpx and Tpx had only little impact on EMSH and H2O2 detoxification. Further live imaging experiments using confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed the stable biosensor expression and fluorescence at the single cell level. In conclusion, the stably expressed Mrx1-roGFP2 biosensor was successfully applied to monitor dynamic EMSH changes in C. glutamicum during the growth, under oxidative stress and in different mutants revealing the impact of Mtr and SigH for the basal level EMSH and the role of OxyR and KatA for efficient H2O2 detoxification under oxidative stress.

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