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Free Radical Biology and Medicine (FRBM)

Radioprotective efficacy of GSH based peptidomimetic complex of manganese against radiation induced damage: DT(GS)2Mn(II)

Publication date: December 2019 Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 145 Author(s): Harleen Khurana, Puja Panwar Hazari, Anil Kumar Mishra AbstractThe adverse effects of ionizing radiation (IR) on biological tissues are mediated via increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) often resulting in life-threatening injuries. The effects of ionizing radiation on cells include the formation of ROS, DNA single-strand breaks, double-strand breaks, and extensive base modifications inducing the complex DNA damage. The capacity to endure the radiation insult lies in the biochemical mechanisms and structural properties in many bacterial species such as Deinococcus radiodurans and Thermococcus radiotolerans. In addition, a mechanistic link has established between the presence and accumulation of short peptides and Mn2+ in the protection of bacteria (Deinococcus radiodurans) from the harmful ionizing radiation. This paradigm has opened up novel avenues of radioprotection in diverse settings and systems for human application. We hereby report a new bifunctional system that comprises of thiol groups in the form of Glutathione (GSH), and manganese to mimic the above system for radioprotection. The present study, therefore, adopts a novel approach to use GSH complexed Mn, and this conjugated system is complying with the prerequisite for radioprotection as seen in the above mechanism. This unique conjugate DT(GS)2Mn(II) was evaluated for its efficacy invitro and invivo. Radioprotective efficacy of DT(GS)2Mn(II) on NIH/3T3 cells revealed that compound could significantly protect cells against radiation-induced toxicity as compared to the standard compound N-acetyl cysteine. Pre-treatment of DT(GS)2Mn(II) increased the survival of mice by 50% compared to radiation alone treatment group. A significant decrease in cytochrome c levels in the group pre-treated with test compound (0.50 ± 0.14) compared to radiation alone group (1.60 ± 0.07) was observed. DT(GS)2Mn(II) attenuated radiation induced apoptosis by promot

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Ghrelin effects on mitochondrial fitness modulates macrophage function

Publication date: December 2019 Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 145 Author(s): Felipe Corrêa da Silva, Cristhiane Aguiar, Jéssica A.S. Pereira, Lauar de Brito Monteiro, Gustavo Gastão Davanzo, Ana Campos Codo, Leonardo Pimentel de Freitas, Aline Siqueira Berti, Danilo Lopes Ferrucci, Bianca Gazieri Castelucci, Sílvio Roberto Consonni, Hernandes F. Carvalho, Pedro M.M. Moraes-Vieira AbstractOver the past years, systemic derived cues that regulate cellular metabolism have been implicated in the regulation of immune responses. Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone produced by enteroendocrine cells in the gastric mucosa with known immunoregulatory roles. The mechanism behind the function of ghrelin in immune cells, such as macrophages, is still poorly understood. Here, we explored the hypothesis that ghrelin leads to alterations in macrophage metabolism thus modulating macrophage function. We demonstrated that ghrelin exerts an immunomodulatory effect over LPS-activated peritoneal macrophages, as evidenced by inhibition of TNF-α and IL-1β secretion and increased IL-12 production. Concomitantly, ghrelin increased mitochondrial membrane potential and increased respiratory rate. In agreement, ghrelin prevented LPS-induced ultrastructural damage in the mitochondria. Ghrelin also blunted LPS-induced glycolysis. In LPS-activated macrophages, glucose deprivation did not affect ghrelin-induced IL-12 secretion, whereas the inhibition of pyruvate transport and mitochondria-derived ATP abolished ghrelin-induced IL-12 secretion, indicating a dependence on mitochondrial function. Ghrelin pre-treatment of metabolic activated macrophages inhibited the secretion of TNF-α and enhanced IL-12 levels. Moreover, ghrelin effects on IL-12, and not on TNF-α, are dependent on mitochondria elongation, since ghrelin did not enhance IL-12 secretion in metabolic activated mitofusin-2 deficient macrophages. Thus, ghrelin affects macrophage mitochondrial metabolism and the subsequent macrophage function. Graphical abstract

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The obligatory role of host microbiota in bioactivation of dietary nitrate

Publication date: December 2019 Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 145 Author(s): Chiara Moretti, Zhengbing Zhuge, Gensheng Zhang, Sarah McCann Haworth, Luciano L. Paulo, Drielle D. Guimarães, Josiane C. Cruz, Marcelo F. Montenegro, Isabel Cordero-Herrera, Valdir A. Braga, Eddie Weitzberg, Mattias Carlström, Jon O. Lundberg AbstractNitric oxide (NO) is a key signalling molecule in the regulation of cardiometabolic function and impaired bioactivity is considered to play an important role in the onset and progression of cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Research has revealed an alternative NO-generating pathway, independent of NO synthase (NOS), in which the inorganic anions nitrate (NO3-) and nitrite (NO2-) are serially reduced to form NO. This work specifically aimed at investigating the role of commensal bacteria in bioactivation of dietary nitrate and its protective effects in a model of cardiovascular and metabolic disease. In a two-hit model, germ-free and conventional male mice were fed a western diet and the NOS inhibitor l-NAME in combination with sodium nitrate (NaNO3) or placebo (NaCl) in the drinking water. Cardiometabolic parameters including blood pressure, glucose tolerance and body composition were measured after six weeks treatment. Mice in both placebo groups showed increased body weight and fat mass, reduced lean mass, impaired glucose tolerance and elevated blood pressure. In conventional mice, nitrate treatment partly prevented the cardiometabolic disturbances induced by a western diet and l-NAME. In contrast, in germ-free mice nitrate had no such beneficial effects. In separate cardiovascular experiments, using conventional and germ-free animals, we assessed NO-like signalling downstream of nitrate by administration of sodium nitrite (NaNO2) via gavage. In this acute experimental setting, nitrite lowered blood pressure to a similar degree in both groups. Likewise, isolated vessels from germ-free mice robustly dilated in response to the NO donor sodium nitroprusside. In concl

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Ovarian stimulated cycles reduce protection of follicular fluid against free radicals

Publication date: December 2019 Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 145 Author(s): Irantzu Pérez-Ruiz, Susana Meijide, Marcos Ferrando, Zaloa Larreategui, María-Begoña Ruiz-Larrea, José-Ignacio Ruiz-Sanz AbstractControlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycle with exogenous gonadotropins (COH) is associated with clinical complications. The aim of this work was to determine whether COH alters the physiological antioxidant status of follicular fluid in women with no reproductive dysfunction, compared to the natural cycle (NC). In this longitudinal study, forty-one women (oocyte donors) consecutively underwent NC and COH. Follicular fluid was collected at oocyte retrieval and different redox biomarkers were determined: total antioxidant activity (TAA), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), nitric oxide, α- and γ-tocopherol, the fatty acid composition, activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, total and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidases, and the antioxidant paraoxonase (PON) family. Results showed that TAA (1.70 ± 0.03 mM versus 1.86 ± 0.03 mM, p < 0.05), α-tocopherol (4.37 ± 0.26 μM versus 5.74 ± 0.30 μM, p < 0.05), PON1 paraoxonase (245 ± 24 nmol/min/ml versus 272 ± 27 nmol/min/ml, p < 0.05), PON1 arylesterase (87.2 ± 4.6 μmol/min/ml versus 99.3 ± 4.8 μmol/min/ml, p < 0.05), and PON3 simvastatinase (13.48 ± 0.52 nmol/min/ml versus 16.29 ± 0.72 nmol/min/ml, p < 0.001) were significantly lower in COH versus NC. Fatty acids from COH were more saturated, increasing palmitate and decreasing the n-6 and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Docosahexaenoic acid also increased (p < 0.05). Results suggest that COH could lead to premature ovarian aging and provide new insights into the possible prevention of the adverse effects of ovarian hyperstimulation by directing therapeutic applications to the maintenance of the redox balance and fatty acid status, with special attention to paraoxonase proteins and docosahexaenoic acid. Graphical abstract

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Deciphering the in vivo redox behavior of human peroxiredoxins I and II by expressing in budding yeast

Publication date: December 2019 Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 145 Author(s): Rakesh Kumar, Ashu Mohammad, Reena V. Saini, Anterpreet Chahal, Chi-Ming Wong, Deepak Sharma, Sukhvir Kaur, Vikas Kumar, Christine C. Winterbourn, Adesh K. Saini AbstractPeroxiredoxins (Prxs), scavenge cellular peroxides by forming recyclable disulfides but under high oxidative stress, hyperoxidation of their active-site Cys residue results in loss of their peroxidase activity. Saccharomyces cerevisiae deficient in human Prx (hPrx) orthologue TSA1 show growth defects under oxidative stress. They can be complemented with hPRXI but not by hPRXII, but it is not clear how the disulfide and hyperoxidation states of the hPrx vary in yeast under oxidative stress. To understand this, we used oxidative-stress sensitive tsa1tsa2Δ yeast strain to express hPRXI or hPRXII. We found that hPrxI in yeast exists as a mixture of disulfide-linked dimer and reduced monomer but becomes hyperoxidized upon elevated oxidative stress as analyzed under denaturing conditions (SDS-PAGE). In contrast, hPrxII was present predominantly as the disulfide in unstressed cells and readily converted to its hyperoxidized, peroxidase-inactive form even with mild oxidative stress. Interestingly, we found that plant extracts containing polyphenol antioxidants provided further protection against the growth defects of the tsa1tsa2Δ strain expressing hPrx and preserved the peroxidase-active forms of the Prxs. The extracts also helped to protect against hyperoxidation of hPrxs in HeLa cells. Based on these findings we can conclude that resistance to oxidative stress of yeast cells expressing individual hPrxs requires the hPrx to be maintained in a redox state that permits redox cycling and peroxidase activity. Peroxidase activity decreases as the hPrx becomes hyperoxidized and the limited protection by hPrxII compared with hPrxI can be explained by its greater sensitivity to hyperoxidation. Graphical abstract

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Redox Biology

Curcumin stabilizes p53 by interaction with NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 in tumor-derived cell lines

Publication date: January 2020 Source: Redox Biology, Volume 28 Author(s): Carlos César Patiño-Morales, Ernesto Soto-Reyes, Elena Arechaga-Ocampo, Elizabeth Ortiz-Sánchez, Verónica Antonio-Véjar, José Pedraza-Chaverri, Alejandro García-Carrancá AbstractCurcumin is a natural phytochemical with potent anti-neoplastic properties including modulation of p53. Targeting p53 activity has been suggested as an important strategy in cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to describe a mechanism by which curcumin restores p53 levels in human cancer cell lines. HeLa, SiHa, CaSki and MDA-MB-231 cells were exposed to curcumin and a pulse and chase and immunoprecipitation assays were performed. Here we showed that curcumin increases the half-life of p53 by a physical interaction between p53-NQO1 (p53 - NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1) proteins after treatment with curcumin. Interestingly, the cell viability assay after treatment with curcumin showed that the cytotoxic activity was selectively higher in cervical cancer cells contained wild type p53 but not in breast cancer cells contained mutated p53. The cytotoxic effect of curcumin in cervical cancer cells was related to the complex p53-NQO1 that avoids the interaction between p53 and its negative regulator ubiquitin ligase E6-associated protein (E6AP). Finally, we demonstrated that in pancreatic epithelioid carcinoma cells (PANC1) that are knockout for NQO1, the reestablishment of NQO1 expression can stabilize p53 in presence of curcumin. Collectively, our findings showed that curcumin is necessary to promote the protein interaction of NQO1 with p53, therefore, it increases the half-life of p53, and permits the cytotoxic effect of curcumin in cancer cells containing wild type p53. Our findings suggest that the use of curcumin may reactivate the p53 pathway in cancer cells with p53 wild-type. Graphical abstract

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A role for peroxiredoxins in H2O2- and MEKK-dependent activation of the p38 signaling pathway

Publication date: January 2020 Source: Redox Biology, Volume 28 Author(s): Ana G. Barata, Tobias P. Dick AbstractThe p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway plays an important role in the cellular response to various stresses and its deregulation accompanies pathological conditions such as cancer and chronic inflammation. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a well-established activator of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. However, the mechanisms of H2O2-induced p38 activation are not yet fully understood. In Drosophila cells, we find that H2O2-induced activation of p38 depends on the MAPK kinase kinase (MAP3K) Mekk1. In line with the emerging role of peroxiredoxins as H2O2 sensors and signal transmitters we observe an H2O2-dependent interaction between Mekk1 and the cytosolic peroxiredoxin of Drosophila, Jafrac1. In human cells, MEKK4 (the homologue of Mekk1) and peroxiredoxin-2 (Prx2) interact in a similar manner, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved mechanism. In both organisms, H2O2 induces transient disulfide-linked conjugates between the MAP3K and a typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxin. We propose that these conjugates represent the relaying of oxidative equivalents from H2O2 to the MAP3K and that the oxidation of Mekk1/MEKK4 leads to the downstream activation of p38 MAPK. Indeed, the depletion of cytosolic 2-Cys peroxiredoxins in human cells diminished H2O2-induced activation of p38 MAPK. Graphical abstract

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Homocysteine-methionine cycle is a metabolic sensor system controlling methylation-regulated pathological signaling

Publication date: January 2020 Source: Redox Biology, Volume 28 Author(s): Wen Shen, Chao Gao, Ramon Cueto, Lu Liu, Hangfei Fu, Ying Shao, William Y. Yang, Pu Fang, Eric T. Choi, Qinghua Wu, Xiaofeng Yang, Hong Wang AbstractHomocysteine-Methionine (HM) cycle produces universal methyl group donor S-adenosylmethione (SAM), methyltransferase inhibitor S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) and homocysteine (Hcy). Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is established as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and other degenerative disease. We selected 115 genes in the extended HM cycle (31 metabolic enzymes and 84 methyltransferases), examined their protein subcellular location/partner protein, investigated their mRNA levels and mapped their corresponding histone methylation status in 35 disease conditions via mining a set of public databases and intensive literature research. We have 6 major findings. 1) All HM metabolic enzymes are located only in the cytosol except for cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), which was identified in both cytosol and nucleus. 2) Eight disease conditions encountered only histone hypomethylation on 8 histone residues (H3R2/K4/R8/K9/K27/K36/K79 and H4R3). Nine disease conditions had only histone hypermethylation on 8 histone residues (H3R2/K4/K9/K27/K36/K79 and H4R3/K20). 3) We classified 9 disease types with differential HM cycle expression pattern. Eleven disease conditions presented most 4 HM cycle pathway suppression. 4) Three disease conditions had all 4 HM cycle pathway suppression and only histone hypomethylation on H3R2/K4/R8/K9/K36 and H4R3. 5) Eleven HM cycle metabolic enzymes interact with 955 proteins. 6) Five paired HM cycle proteins interact with each other. We conclude that HM cycle is a key metabolic sensor system which mediates receptor-independent metabolism-associated danger signal recognition and modulates SAM/SAH-dependent methylation in disease conditions and that hypomethylation on frequently modified histone residues is a key mechanism for metabolic disorders, autoimmun

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The use of site-specific suppressors to measure the relative contributions of different mitochondrial sites to skeletal muscle superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production

Publication date: January 2020 Source: Redox Biology, Volume 28 Author(s): Renata L.S. Goncalves, Mark A. Watson, Hoi-Shan Wong, Adam L. Orr, Martin D. Brand AbstractReactive oxygen species are important signaling molecules crucial for muscle differentiation and adaptation to exercise. However, their uncontrolled generation is associated with an array of pathological conditions. To identify and quantify the sources of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in skeletal muscle we used site-specific suppressors (S1QELs, S3QELs and NADPH oxidase inhibitors). We measured the rates of hydrogen peroxide release from isolated rat muscle mitochondria incubated in media mimicking the cytosol of intact muscle. By measuring the extent of inhibition caused by the addition of different site-specific suppressors of mitochondrial superoxide/hydrogen peroxide production (S1QELs for site IQ and S3QELs for site IIIQo), we determined the contributions of these sites to the total signal. In media mimicking resting muscle, their contributions were each 12–18%, consistent with a previous method. In C2C12 myoblasts, site IQ contributed 12% of cellular hydrogen peroxide production and site IIIQo contributed about 30%. When C2C12 myoblasts were differentiated to myotubes, hydrogen peroxide release increased five-fold, and the proportional contribution of site IQ doubled. The use of S1QELs and S3QELs is a powerful new way to measure the relative contributions of different mitochondrial sites to muscle hydrogen peroxide production under different conditions. Our results show that mitochondrial sites IQ and IIIQo make a substantial contribution to superoxide/hydrogen peroxide production in muscle mitochondria and C2C12 myoblasts. The total hydrogen peroxide release rate and the relative contribution of site IQ both increase substantially upon differentiation to myotubes. Graphical abstract

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AMPK-mediated senolytic and senostatic activity of quercetin surface functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles during oxidant-induced senescence in human fibroblasts

Publication date: January 2020 Source: Redox Biology, Volume 28 Author(s): Anna Lewinska, Jagoda Adamczyk-Grochala, Dominika Bloniarz, Jakub Olszowka, Magdalena Kulpa-Greszta, Grzegorz Litwinienko, Anna Tomaszewska, Maciej Wnuk, Robert Pazik AbstractCellular senescence may contribute to aging and age-related diseases and senolytic drugs that selectively kill senescent cells may delay aging and promote healthspan. More recently, several categories of senolytics have been established, namely HSP90 inhibitors, Bcl-2 family inhibitors and natural compounds such as quercetin and fisetin. However, senolytic and senostatic potential of nanoparticles and surface-modified nanoparticles has never been addressed. In the present study, quercetin surface functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNPQ) were synthesized and their senolytic and senostatic activity was evaluated during oxidative stress-induced senescence in human fibroblasts in vitro. MNPQ promoted AMPK activity that was accompanied by non-apoptotic cell death and decreased number of stress-induced senescent cells (senolytic action) and the suppression of senescence-associated proinflammatory response (decreased levels of secreted IL-8 and IFN-β, senostatic action). In summary, we have shown for the first time that MNPQ may be considered as promising candidates for senolytic- and senostatic-based anti-aging therapies. Graphical abstract

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