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Free Radical Biology and Medicine (FRBM)

BMP signaling-driven osteogenesis is critically dependent on Prdx-1 expression-mediated maintenance of chondrocyte prehypetrophy

Publication date: April 2018 Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 118 Author(s): Yogesh Kumar, Tathagata Biswas, Gatha Thacker, Jitendra Kumar Kanaujiya, Sandeep Kumar, Anukampa Shukla, Kainat Khan, Sabyasachi Sanyal, Naibedya Chattopadhyay, Amitabha Bandyopadhyay, Arun Kumar Trivedi During endochondral ossification, cartilage template is eventually replaced by bone. This process involves several well characterized, stereotypic, molecular and cellular changes in the cartilage primordia. These steps involve transition from resting to proliferative and then pre-hypertrophic to finally hypertrophic cartilage. BMP signaling is necessary and sufficient for osteogenesis. However, the specific step(s) of endochondral ossification in which BMP signaling plays an essential role is not yet known. In this study we have identified Prdx1, a known scavenger of ROS, to be expressed in pre-hypertrophic chondrocytes in a BMP signaling-dependent manner. We demonstrate that BMP signaling inhibition increases ROS levels in osteogenic cells. Further, Prdx1 regulates osteogenesis in vivo by helping maintenance of Ihh expressing pre-hypertrophic cells, in turn regulating these cells’ transition into hypertrophy. Therefore, our data suggests that one of the key roles of BMP signaling in endochondral ossification is to maintain pre-hypertrophic state. Graphical abstract

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Age-dependent oxidation of extracellular cysteine/cystine redox state (Eh(Cys/CySS)) in mouse lung fibroblasts is mediated by a decline in Slc7a11 expression

Publication date: April 2018 Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 118 Author(s): Yuxuan Zheng, Jeffrey D. Ritzenthaler, Tom J. Burke, Javier Otero, Jesse Roman, Walter H. Watson Aging is associated with progressive oxidation of the extracellular environment. The redox state of human plasma, defined by the concentrations of cysteine (Cys) and cystine (CySS), becomes more oxidized as we age. Recently, we showed that fibroblasts isolated from the lungs of young and old mice retain this differential phenotype; old cells produce and maintain a more oxidizing extracellular redox potential (Eh(Cys/CySS)) than young cells. Microarray analysis identified down-regulation of Slc7a11, the light subunit of the CySS/glutamate transporter, as a potential mediator of age-related oxidation in these cells. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mechanistic link between Slc7a11 expression and extracellular Eh(Cys/CySS). Sulforaphane treatment or overexpression of Slc7a11 was used to increase Slc7a11 in lung fibroblasts from old mice, and sulfasalazine treatment or siRNA-mediated knock down was used to decrease Slc7a11 in young fibroblasts. Slc7a11 mRNA levels were measured by real-time PCR, Slc7a11 activity was determined by measuring the rate of glutamate release, Cys, CySS, glutathione (GSH) and its disulfide (GSSG) were measured by HPLC, and Eh(Cys/CySS) was calculated from the Nernst equation. The results showed that both Eh(Cys/CySS) and Eh(GSH/GSSG) were more oxidized in the conditioned media of old cells than in young cells. Up-regulation of Slc7a11 via overexpression or sulforaphane treatment restored extracellular Eh(Cys/CySS) in cultures of old cells, whereas down-regulation reproduced the oxidizing Eh(Cys/CySS) in young cells. Only sulforaphane treatment was able to increase total GSH and restore Eh(GSH/GSSG), whereas overexpression, knock down and sulfasalazine had no effect on these parameters. In addition, inhibition of GSH synthesis with buthionine sulfoximine had no ef

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ROS and redox signaling in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and cardioprotection

Publication date: March 2018 Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 117 Author(s): Susana Cadenas Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is central to the pathology of major cardiovascular diseases, such as stroke and myocardial infarction. IR injury is mediated by several factors including the elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which occurs particularly at reperfusion. The mitochondrial respiratory chain and NADPH oxidases of the NOX family are major sources of ROS in cardiomyocytes. The first part of this review discusses recent findings and controversies on the mechanisms of superoxide production by the mitochondrial electron transport chain during IR injury, as well as the contribution of the NOX isoforms expressed in cardiomyocytes, NOX1, NOX2 and NOX4, to this damage. It then focuses on the effects of ROS on the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), an inner membrane non-selective pore that causes irreversible damage to the heart. The second part analyzes the redox mechanisms of cardiomyocyte mitochondrial protection; specifically, the activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway and the antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2, which are both regulated by the cellular redox state. Redox mechanisms involved in ischemic preconditioning, one of the most effective ways of protecting the heart against IR injury, are also reviewed. Interestingly, several of these protective pathways converge on the inhibition of mPTP opening during reperfusion. Finally, the clinical and translational implications of these cardioprotective mechanisms are discussed. Graphical abstract

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The potential therapeutic effects of ergothioneine in pre-eclampsia

Publication date: March 2018 Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 117 Author(s): Robert N. Kerley, Cathal McCarthy, Douglas B. Kell, Louise C. Kenny Ergothioneine (ERG), is a water-soluble amino acid that is derived entirely from dietary sources. It has received much attention as a therapeutic agent due to its anti-oxidant properties, and there are claims of preferential accumulation within high oxidative stress organs. Pre-eclampsia, a condition accompanied by increased oxidative stress, is one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality. Despite intense research efforts, its aetiologies remain somewhat unclear and there are still no effective treatment options. Clinical trials of the anti-oxidants vitamin C and vitamin E have proven largely ineffective with little improvement in clinical outcome or even a negative response. This could be explained in part by their inability to permeate the plasma and mitochondrial membranes and scavenge mitochondria-derived superoxide species, and for the former by the fact that it is actually a pro-oxidant in the presence of unliganded iron. ERG accumulates within tissues through the action of a specific organic cation transporter, SLC22A4 (previously referred to as OCTN1), which is possibly also expressed in mammalian mitochondria. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in a variety of vascular diseases including pre-eclampsia. This review discusses the use of ERG as a possibly mitochondrial-targeted anti-oxidant, focusing on its physical properties, potential mechanisms of action, safety profile and administration in relation to pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia. Graphical abstract

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Carbonic anhydrase II does not exhibit Nitrite reductase or Nitrous Anhydrase Activity

Publication date: March 2018 Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 117 Author(s): Jacob T. Andring, Carrie L. Lomelino, Chingkuang Tu, David N. Silverman, Robert McKenna, Erik R. Swenson Carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) is a zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of water and CO2 to bicarbonate and a proton. CA II is abundant in most cells, and plays a role in numerous processes including gas exchange, epithelial ion transport, respiration, extra- and intracellular pH control, and vascular regulation. Beyond these CO2 and pH-linked roles, it has been postulated that CA II might also reduce nitrite (NO2 -) to nitric oxide (NO), as bicarbonate and NO2 - both exhibit sp 2 molecular geometry and NO also plays an important role in vasodilation and regulation of blood pressure. Indeed, previous studies by Aamand et al. have shown that bovine CA II (BCA II) possesses nitrite dehydration activity and paradoxically demonstrated that CA inhibitors (CAIs) such as dorzolamide and acetazolamide significantly increased NO production (Aamand et al., 2009; Nielsen and Fago, 2015) [1,2]. Hence, the goal of this work was to revisit these studies using the same experimental conditions as Aamand et al. measuring NO generation by two methods, and to examine the structure of CA II in complex with NO2 - in the presence and absence of dorzolamide. Our results contradict the previous findings and indicate that CA II does not exhibit nitrite reductase or dehydration activity, and that this is not enhanced in the presence of CA inhibitors. In addition, a structural examination of BCA II in complex with NO2 - and superimposed with dorzolamide demonstrates that CA inhibitor binding at the active site to the zinc moiety blocks potential NO2 - binding. Graphical abstract

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Redox Biology

Redox control of cancer cell destruction

Publication date: June 2018 Source:Redox Biology, Volume 16 Author(s): Csaba Hegedűs, Katalin Kovács, Zsuzsanna Polgár, Zsolt Regdon, Éva Szabó, Agnieszka Robaszkiewicz, Henry Jay Forman, Anna Martner, László Virág Redox regulation has been proposed to control various aspects of carcinogenesis, cancer cell growth, metabolism, migration, invasion, metastasis and cancer vascularization. As cancer has many faces, the role of redox control in different cancers and in the numerous cancer-related processes often point in different directions. In this review, we focus on the redox control mechanisms of tumor cell destruction. The review covers the tumor-intrinsic role of oxidants derived from the reduction of oxygen and nitrogen in the control of tumor cell proliferation as well as the roles of oxidants and antioxidant systems in cancer cell death caused by traditional anticancer weapons (chemotherapeutic agents, radiotherapy, photodynamic therapy). Emphasis is also put on the role of oxidants and redox status in the outcome following interactions between cancer cells, cytotoxic lymphocytes and tumor infiltrating macrophages.

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Hypoxia enhances H2O2-mediated upregulation of hepcidin: Evidence for NOX4-mediated iron regulation

Publication date: June 2018 Source:Redox Biology, Volume 16 Author(s): Inês Silva, Vanessa Rausch, Teresa Peccerella, Gunda Millonig, Helmut-Karl Seitz, Sebastian Mueller The exact regulation of the liver-secreted peptide hepcidin, the key regulator of systemic iron homeostasis, is still poorly understood. It is potently induced by iron, inflammation, cytokines or H2O2 but conflicting results have been reported on hypoxia. In our current study, we first show that pronounced (1%) and mild (5%) hypoxia strongly induces hepcidin in human Huh7 hepatoma and primary liver cells predominantly at the transcriptional level via STAT3 using two hypoxia systems (hypoxia chamber and enzymatic hypoxia by the GOX/CAT system). SiRNA silencing of JAK1, STAT3 and NOX4 diminished the hypoxia-mediated effect while a role of HIF1α could be clearly ruled out by the response to hypoxia-mimetics and competition experiments with a plasmid harboring the oxygen-dependent degradation domain of HIF1α. Specifically, hypoxia drastically enhances the H2O2-mediated induction of hepcidin strongly pointing towards an oxidase as powerful upstream control of hepcidin. We finally provide evidences for an efficient regulation of hepcidin expression by NADPH-dependent oxidase 4 (NOX4) in liver cells. In summary, our data demonstrate that hypoxia strongly potentiates the peroxide-mediated induction of hepcidin via STAT3 signaling pathway. Moreover, oxidases such as NOX4 or artificially overexpressed urate oxidase (UOX) can induce hepcidin. It remains to be studied whether the peroxide-STAT3-hepcidin axis simply acts to continuously compensate for oxygen fluctuations or is directly involved in iron sensing per se. Graphical abstract

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Hydrogen peroxide production by lactobacilli promotes epithelial restitution during colitis

Publication date: June 2018 Source:Redox Biology, Volume 16 Author(s): Ashish K. Singh, Rosanne Y. Hertzberger, Ulla G. Knaus Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multifactorial chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract, characterized by cycles of acute flares, recovery and remission phases. Treatments for accelerating tissue restitution and prolonging remission are scarce, but altering the microbiota composition to promote intestinal homeostasis is considered a safe, economic and promising approach. Although probiotic bacteria have not yet fulfilled fully their promise in clinical trials, understanding the mechanism of how they exert beneficial effects will permit devising improved therapeutic strategies. Here we probe if one of the defining features of lactobacilli, the ability to generate nanomolar H2O2, contributes to their beneficial role in colitis. H2O2 generation by wild type L. johnsonii was modified by either deleting or overexpressing the enzymatic H2O2 source(s) followed by orally administering the bacteria before and during DSS colitis. Boosting luminal H2O2 concentrations within a physiological range accelerated recovery from colitis, while significantly exceeding this H2O2 level triggered bacteraemia. This study supports a role for increasing H2O2 within the physiological range at the epithelial barrier, independently of the enzymatic source and/or delivery mechanism, for inducing recovery and remission in IBD. Graphical abstract

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Differential effects of short chain fatty acids on endothelial Nlrp3 inflammasome activation and neointima formation: Antioxidant action of butyrate

Publication date: June 2018 Source:Redox Biology, Volume 16 Author(s): Xinxu Yuan, Lei Wang, Owais M. Bhat, Hannah Lohner, Pin-Lan Li Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), a family of gut microbial metabolites, have been reported to promote preservation of endothelial function and thereby exert anti-atherosclerotic action. However, the precise mechanism mediating this protective action of SCFAs remains unknown. The present study investigated the effects of SCFAs (acetate, propionate and butyrate) on the activation of Nod-like receptor pyrin domain 3 (Nlrp3) inflammasome in endothelial cells (ECs) and associated carotid neointima formation. Using a partial ligated carotid artery (PLCA) mouse model fed with the Western diet (WD), we found that butyrate significantly decreased Nlrp3 inflammasome formation and activation in the carotid arterial wall of wild type mice (Asc +/+), which was comparable to the effect of gene deletion of the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein gene (Asc -/-). Nevertheless, both acetate and propionate markedly enhanced the formation and activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome as well as carotid neointima formation in the carotid arteries with PLCA in Asc +/+, but not Asc -/- mice. In cultured ECs (EOMA cells), butyrate was found to significantly decrease the formation and activation of Nlrp3 inflammasomes induced by 7-ketocholesterol (7-Ket) or cholesterol crystals (CHC), while acetate did not inhibit Nlrp3 inflammasome activation induced by either 7-Ket or CHC, but itself even activated Nlrp3 inflammsomes. Mechanistically, the inhibitory action of butyrate on the Nlrp3 inflammasome was attributed to a blockade of lipid raft redox signaling platforms to produce O2•- upon 7-Ket or CHC stimulations. These results indicate that SCFAs have differential effects on endothelial Nlrp3 inflammasome activation and associated carotid neointima formation.

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Reactive oxygen species promote tubular injury in diabetic nephropathy: The role of the mitochondrial ros-txnip-nlrp3 biological axis

Publication date: June 2018 Source:Redox Biology, Volume 16 Author(s): Yachun Han, Xiaoxuan Xu, Chengyuan Tang, Peng Gao, Xianghui Chen, Xiaofen Xiong, Ming Yang, Shikun Yang, Xuejing Zhu, Shuguang Yuan, Fuyou Liu, Li Xiao, Yashpal S. Kanwar, Lin Sun NLRP3/IL-1β activation via thioredoxin (TRX)/thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) following mitochondria ROS (mtROS) overproduction plays a key role in inflammation. However, the involvement of this process in tubular damage in the kidneys of patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that mtROS overproduction is accompanied by decreases in TRX expression and TXNIP up-regulation. In addition, we discovered that mtROS overproduction is also associated with increases in NLRP3/IL-1β and TGF-β expression in the kidneys of patients with DN and db/db mice. We reversed these changes in db/db mice by administering a peritoneal injection of MitoQ, an antioxidant targeting mtROS. Similar results were observed in human tubular HK-2 cells subjected to high-glucose (HG) conditions and treated with MitoQ. Treating HK-2 cells with MitoQ suppressed the dissociation of TRX from TXNIP and subsequently blocked the interaction between TXNIP and NLRP3, leading to the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β maturation. The effects of MitoQ were enhanced by pretreatment with TXNIP siRNA and abolished by pretreatment with monosodium urate (MSU) and TRX siRNA in vitro. These results suggest that mitochondrial ROS-TXNIP/NLRP3/IL-1β axis activation is responsible for tubular oxidative injury, which can be ameliorated by MitoQ via the inhibition of mtROS overproduction. Graphical abstract

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