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Free Radical Biology and Medicine (FRBM)

Down-regulation of NOX2 activity in phagocytes mediated by ATM-kinase dependent phosphorylation

Publication date: December 2017 Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 113 Author(s): Sylvain Beaumel, Antoine Picciocchi, Franck Debeurme, Corinne Vivès, Anne-Marie Hesse, Myriam Ferro, Didier Grunwald, Heather Stieglitz, Pahk Thepchatri, Susan M.E. Smith, Franck Fieschi, Marie José Stasia NADPH oxidases (NOX) have many biological roles, but their regulation to control production of potentially toxic ROS molecules remains unclear. A previously identified insertion sequence of 21 residues (called NIS) influences NOX activity, and its predicted flexibility makes it a good candidate for providing a dynamic switch controlling the NOX active site. We constructed NOX2 chimeras in which NIS had been deleted or exchanged with those from other NOXs (NIS1, 3 and 4). All contained functional heme and were expressed normally at the plasma membrane of differentiated PLB-985 cells. However, NOX2-ΔNIS and NOX2-NIS1 had neither NADPH-oxidase nor reductase activity and exhibited abnormal translocation of p47 phox and p67 phox to the phagosomal membrane. This suggested a functional role of NIS. Interestingly after activation, NOX2-NIS3 cells exhibited superoxide overproduction compared with wild-type cells. Paradoxically, the Vmax of purified unstimulated NOX2-NIS3 was only one-third of that of WT-NOX2. We therefore hypothesized that post-translational events regulate NOX2 activity and differ between NOX2-NIS3 and WT-NOX2. We demonstrated that Ser486, a phosphorylation target of ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM kinase) located in the NIS of NOX2 (NOX2-NIS), was phosphorylated in purified cytochrome b 558 after stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). Moreover, ATM kinase inhibition and a NOX2 Ser486Ala mutation enhanced NOX activity whereas a Ser486Glu mutation inhibited it. Thus, the absence of Ser486 in NIS3 could explain the superoxide overproduction in the NOX2-NIS3 mutant. These results suggest that PMA-stimulated NOX2-NIS phosphorylation by ATM kinase causes

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Insulin-dependent metabolic and inotropic responses in the heart are modulated by hydrogen peroxide from NADPH-oxidase isoforms NOX2 and NOX4

Publication date: December 2017 Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 113 Author(s): Benjamin Steinhorn, Juliano L. Sartoretto, Andrea Sorrentino, Natalia Romero, Hermann Kalwa, E. Dale Abel, Thomas Michel Rationale Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a stable reactive oxygen species (ROS) that has long been implicated in insulin signal transduction in adipocytes. However, H2O2's role in mediating insulin's effects on the heart are unknown. Objective We investigated the role of H2O2 in activating insulin-dependent changes in cardiac myocyte metabolic and inotropic pathways. The sources of insulin-dependent H2O2 generation were also studied. Methods and results In addition to the canonical role of insulin in modulating cardiac metabolic pathways, we found that insulin also inhibited beta adrenergic-induced increases in cardiac contractility. Catalase and NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitors blunted activation of insulin-responsive kinases Akt and mTOR and attenuated beta adrenergic receptor-mediated responses. These insulin responses were lost in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes, suggesting a role for these H2O2-dependent pathways in the diabetic heart. The H2O2-sensitive fluorescent biosensor HyPer revealed rapid increases in cytosolic and caveolar H2O2 concentrations in response to insulin treatment, which were blocked by NOX inhibitors and attenuated in NOX2 KO and NOX4 KO mice. In NOX2 KO cardiac myocytes, insulin-mediated phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR was blocked, while these responses were unaffected in cardiac myocytes from NOX4 KO mice. In contrast, insulin's effects on contractility were lost in cardiac myocytes from NOX4 KO animals but were retained in NOX2 KO mice. Conclusions These studies identify a proximal point of bifurcation in cardiac insulin signaling through the simultaneous activation of both NOX2 and NOX4. Each NOX isoform generates H2O2 in cardiac myocytes with distinct time courses, with H2O2 derived from NOX2 augmenting Akt-dependent metabolic effects of insulin,

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Nox4 regulates the eNOS uncoupling process in aging endothelial cells

Publication date: December 2017 Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 113 Author(s): Hwa-Young Lee, Hafiz Maher Ali Zeeshan, Hyung-Ryong Kim, Han-Jung Chae ROS and its associated signaling contribute to vascular aging-associated endothelial disturbance. Since the non-effective endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) coupling status is related to vascular aging-related phenotypes, eNOS coupled/uncoupled system signaling was studied in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Nitric oxide (NO) and eNOS Ser1177 were significantly decreased, whereas O2 - (superoxide anion radical) increased with passage number. In aging cells, NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), one of the main superoxide generating enzymes, and its associated protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) chaperone were highly activated, and the resultant ER redox imbalance leads to disturbance of protein folding capability, namely endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, ultimately inducing dissociation between HSP90 and IRE-1α or PERK, decreasing HSP90 stability and dissociating the binding of eNOS from the HSP90 and leading to eNOS uncoupling. Through chemical and Nox4 siRNA approaches, Nox4 and its linked ER stress were shown to mainly contribute to eNOS uncoupling and its associated signaling, suggesting that Nox4 and its related ER stress signaling are key signals of the aging process in endothelial cells. Graphical abstract

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Pharmacologic ascorbate induces neuroblastoma cell death by hydrogen peroxide mediated DNA damage and reduction in cancer cell glycolysis

Publication date: December 2017 Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 113 Author(s): Enlong Ma, Ping Chen, Heather M. Wilkins, Tao Wang, Russell H. Swerdlow, Qi Chen An ascorbate-mediated production of oxidative stress has been shown to retard tumor growth. Subsequent glycolysis inhibition has been suggested. Here, we further define the mechanisms relevant to this observation. Ascorbate was cytotoxic to human neuroblastoma cells through the production of H2O2, which led to ATP depletion, inhibited GAPDH, and non-apoptotic and non-autophagic cell death. The mechanism of cytotoxicity is different when PARP-dependent DNA repair machinery is active or inhibited. Ascorbate-generated H2O2 damaged DNA, activated PARP, depleted NAD+, and reduced glycolysis flux. NAD+ supplementation prevented ATP depletion and cell death, while treatment with a PARP inhibitor, olaparib, preserved NAD+ and ATP levels but led to increased DNA double-strand breakage and did not prevent ascorbate-induced cell death. These data indicate that in cells with an intact PARP-associated DNA repair system, ascorbate-induced cell death is caused by NAD+ and ATP depletion, while in the absence of PARP activation ascorbate-induced cell death still occurs but is a consequence of ROS-induced DNA damage. In a mouse xenograft model, intraperitoneal ascorbate inhibited neuroblastoma tumor growth and prolonged survival. Collectively, these data suggest that ascorbate could be effective in the treatment of glycolysis-dependent tumors. Also, in cancers that use alternative energy metabolism pathways, combining a PARP inhibitor with ascorbate treatment could be useful. Graphical abstract

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Glutathione peroxidase 4-catalyzed reduction of lipid hydroperoxides in membranes: The polar head of membrane phospholipids binds the enzyme and addresses the fatty acid hydroperoxide group toward the redox center

Publication date: November 2017 Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 112 Author(s): Giorgio Cozza, Monica Rossetto, Valentina Bosello-Travain, Matilde Maiorino, Antonella Roveri, Stefano Toppo, Mattia Zaccarin, Lucio Zennaro, Fulvio Ursini GPx4 is a monomeric glutathione peroxidase, unique in reducing the hydroperoxide group (-OOH) of fatty acids esterified in membrane phospholipids. This reaction inhibits lipid peroxidation and accounts for enzyme's vital role. Here we investigated the interaction of GPx4 with membrane phospholipids. A cationic surface near the GPx4 catalytic center interacts with phospholipid polar heads. Accordingly, SPR analysis indicates cardiolipin as the phospholipid with maximal affinity to GPx4. Consistent with the electrostatic nature of the interaction, KCl increases the KD. Molecular dynamic (MD) simulation shows that a -OOH posed in the core of the membrane as 13 - or 9 -OOH of tetra-linoleoyl cardiolipin or 15 -OOH stearoyl-arachidonoyl-phosphaphatidylcholine moves to the lipid-water interface. Thereby, the -OOH groups are addressed toward the GPx4 redox center. In this pose, however, the catalytic site facing the membrane would be inaccessible to GSH, but the consecutive redox processes facilitate access of GSH, which further primes undocking of the enzyme, because GSH competes for the binding residues implicated in docking. During the final phase of the catalytic cycle, while GSSG is produced, GPx4 is disconnected from the membrane. The observation that GSH depletion in cells induces GPx4 translocation to the membrane, is in agreement with this concept. Graphical abstract

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Redox Biology

Short overview on metabolomics approach to study pathophysiology of oxidative stress in cancer

Publication date: April 2018 Source:Redox Biology, Volume 14 Author(s): Luka Andrisic, Danuta Dudzik, Coral Barbas, Lidija Milkovic, Tilman Grune, Neven Zarkovic Association of oxidative stress with carcinogenesis is well known, but not understood well, as is pathophysiology of oxidative stress generated during different types of anti-cancer treatments. Moreover, recent findings indicate that cancer associated lipid peroxidation might eventually help defending adjacent nonmalignant cells from cancer invasion. Therefore, untargeted metabolomics studies designed for advanced translational and clinical studies are needed to understand the existing paradoxes in oncology, including those related to controversial usage of antioxidants aiming to prevent or treat cancer. In this short review we have tried to put emphasis on the importance of pathophysiology of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in cancer development in relation to metabolic adaptation of particular types of cancer allowing us to conclude that adaptation to oxidative stress is one of the main driving forces of cancer pathophysiology. With the help of metabolomics many novel findings are being achieved thus encouraging further scientific breakthroughs. Combined with targeted qualitative and quantitative methods, especially immunochemistry, further research might reveal bio-signatures of individual patients and respective malignant diseases, leading to individualized treatment approach, according to the concepts of modern integrative medicine.

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A reciprocal relationship between reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dynamics in neurodegeneration

Publication date: April 2018 Source:Redox Biology, Volume 14 Author(s): Clara Hiu-Ling Hung, Sally Shuk-Yee Cheng, Yuen-Ting Cheung, Suthicha Wuwongse, Natalie Qishan Zhang, Yuen-Shan Ho, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang Mitochondrial fragmentation due to fission/fusion imbalance has often been linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in neurodegeneration. Conventionally, it is believed that once mitochondrial morphology shifts away from its physiological tubular form, mitochondria become defective and downstream apoptotic signaling pathways are triggered. However, our study shows that beta-amyloid (Aβ) induces morphological changes in mitochondria where they become granular-shaped and are distinct from fragmented mitochondria in terms of both morphology and functions. Accumulation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species triggers granular mitochondria formation, while mitoTEMPO (a mitochondria-targeted superoxide scavenger) restores tubular mitochondrial morphology within Aβ-treated neurons. Interestingly, modulations of mitochondria fission and fusion by genetic and pharmacological tools attenuated not only the induction of granular mitochondria, but also mitochondrial superoxide levels in Aβ−treated neurons. Our study shows a reciprocal relationship between mitochondrial dynamics and reactive oxygen species and provides a new potential therapeutic target at early stages of neurodegenerative disease pathogenesis. Graphical abstract

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Cytoprotective mechanisms of DJ-1 against oxidative stress through modulating ERK1/2 and ASK1 signal transduction

Publication date: April 2018 Source:Redox Biology, Volume 14 Author(s): Stephanie E. Oh, M. Maral Mouradian DJ-1 is a highly conserved multifunctional protein linked to both neurodegeneration and neoplasia. Among its various activities is an antioxidant property leading to cytoprotection under oxidative stress conditions. This is associated with the ability to modulate signal transduction events that determine how the cell regulates normal processes such as growth, senescence, apoptosis, and autophagy in order to adapt to environmental stimuli and stresses. Alterations in DJ-1 expression or function can disrupt homeostatic signaling networks and initiate cascades that play a role in the pathogenesis of conditions such as Parkinson's disease and cancer. DJ-1 plays a major role in various signaling pathways. Related to its anti-oxidant properties, it mediates cell survival and proliferation by activating the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) pathway and attenuates cell death signaling by inhibiting apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) activation. Here, we review the ways through which DJ-1 regulates these pathways, focusing on how its regulation of signal transduction contributes to cellular homeostasis and the pathologic states that result from their dysregulation.

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Reduced levels of methyltransferase DNMT2 sensitize human fibroblasts to oxidative stress and DNA damage that is accompanied by changes in proliferation-related miRNA expression

Publication date: April 2018 Source:Redox Biology, Volume 14 Author(s): Anna Lewinska, Jagoda Adamczyk-Grochala, Ewa Kwasniewicz, Anna Deregowska, Ewelina Semik, Tomasz Zabek, Maciej Wnuk Methyltransferase DNMT2 is suggested to be involved in the regulation of numerous processes, however its biological significance and underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In the present study, we have used WI-38 and BJ human fibroblasts as an in vitro model system to investigate the effects of siRNA-based DNMT2 silencing. DNMT2-depleted cells were found to be sensitive to oxidative stress conditions as judged by increased production of reactive oxygen species and susceptible to DNA damage that resulted in the inhibition of cell proliferation. DNMT2 silencing promoted upregulation of proliferation-related and tumor suppressor miRNAs, namely miR-28-3p, miR-34a-3p, miR-30b-5p, miR-29b-3p, miR-200c-3p, miR-28-5p, miR-379-5p, miR-382-5p, miR-194-5p, miR-193b-3p and miR-409-3p. Moreover, DNMT2 silencing induced cellular senescence and DNMT2 levels were elevated in replicatively senescent cells. Taken together, we found that DNMT2 may take part in the regulation of cell proliferation and longevity in human fibroblasts and speculate that the manipulation of DNMT2 levels that limits cell proliferation may be potentially useful anticancer strategy.

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Aging-related decline in the induction of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant genes in human bronchial epithelial cells

Publication date: April 2018 Source:Redox Biology, Volume 14 Author(s): Lulu Zhou, Hongqiao Zhang, Kelvin J.A. Davies, Henry Jay Forman Evidence from animal studies suggests that stress-induced increases in Nrf2-regulated antioxidant gene expression, a critical mechanism of cellular protection, declines with aging. This study examined whether this also occurs in humans. We measured the basal and inducible levels of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant genes in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells from subjects of young adult (21–29 years) and older (60–69 years) non-smokers, and explored factors affecting expresion. The basal expression of three representative Nrf2-regulated genes, the catalytic and modulator subunits of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLC and GCLM, respectively), and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), was higher in cells from the older donors compared with cells from the young adult donors. Upon exposure to the Nrf2 activator, sulforaphane (SF), the expression of these antioxidant genes was increased in cells from both the young adults and the older donors; however, the induction by SF in older donor cells was significantly less than that seen in young adult cells. In addition, the activation of an EpRE-driven reporter by SF was lower in cells from older donors compared to cells from young adults. The basal expression of Nrf2 protein was also lower in cells from older donors than cells from young adults. Furthermore, we found that the basal expression of both Bach1 and c-Myc, two Nrf2 suppressors, was higher in cells from older adults than from young adult donors. In summary, our data suggest that, as in other species, basal expression of Nrf2-regulated genes increases with aging, while inducibility declines with aging. The increased expression of Nrf2 suppressors such as Bach1 and c-Myc may contribute to the impaired inducibility of the Nrf2-regulated antioxidant genes with aging in human bronchial epithelial cells.

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