Latest Articles


Free Radical Biology and Medicine (FRBM)

Alteration of Nrf2 and Glutamate Cysteine Ligase expression contribute to lesions growth and fibrogenesis in ectopic endometriosis

Publication date: September 2017 Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 110 Author(s): L. Marcellin, P. Santulli, S. Chouzenoux, O. Cerles, C. Nicco, B. Dousset, M. Pallardy, S. Kerdine-Römer, PA. Just, C. Chapron, F. Batteux The redox-sensitive nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (NRF2) controls endogenous antioxidant enzymes’ transcription and protects against oxidative damage which is triggered by inflammation and known to favor progression of endometriosis. Glutamate Cysteine Ligase (GCL), a target gene of NRF2, is the first enzyme in the synthesis cascade of glutathione, an important endogenous antioxidant. Sixty-one patients, with thorough surgical examination of the abdominopelvic cavity, were recruited for the study: 31 with histologically-proven endometriosis and 30 disease-free women taken as controls. Expressions of NRF2 and GCL were investigated by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in eutopic and ectopic endometria from endometriosis-affected women and in endometrium of disease-free women. Ex vivo stromal and epithelial cells were extracted and purified from endometrial and endometriotic biopsies to explore expression of NRF2 and GCL in both stromal and epithelial compartments by western blot. Finally, in order to strengthen the role of NRF2 in endometriosis pathogenesis, we evaluated the drop of NRF2 expression in a mouse model of endometriosis using NRF2 knockout (NRF2-/-) mice. The mRNA levels of NRF2 and GCL were significantly lower in ectopic endometria of endometriosis-affected women compared to eutopic endometria of disease-free women. The immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the decreased expression of both NRF2 and GCL in ectopic endometriotic tissues compared to eutopic endometria of endometriosis-affected and disease-free women. Immunoblotting revealed a significant decreased of NRF2 and GCL expression in epithelial and stroma cells from ectopic lesions of endometriosis-affected women compared to eutopic endometria from controls. Usi

read article »


Chronicles of a reductase: Biochemistry, genetics and physio-pathological role of GSNOR

Publication date: September 2017 Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 110 Author(s): Salvatore Rizza, Giuseppe Filomeni S-nitrosylation is a major redox posttranslational modification involved in cell signaling. The steady state concentration of S-nitrosylated proteins depends on the balance between the relative ability to generate nitric oxide (NO) via NO synthase and to reduce nitrosothiols by denitrosylases. Numerous works have been published in last decades regarding the role of NO and S-nitrosylation in the regulation of protein structure and function, and in driving cellular activities in vertebrates. Notwithstanding an increasing number of observations indicates that impairment of denitrosylation equally affects cellular homeostasis, there is still no report providing comprehensive knowledge on the impact that denitrosylation has on maintaining correct physiological processes and organ activities. Among denitrosylases, S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) represents the prototype enzyme to disclose how denitrosylation plays a crucial role in tuning NO-bioactivity and how much it deeply impacts on cell homeostasis and human patho-physiology. In this review we attempt to illustrate the history of GSNOR discovery and provide the evidence so far reported in support of GSNOR implications in development and human disease. Graphical abstract

read article »


Cyclophosphamide and acrolein induced oxidative stress leading to deterioration of metaphase II mouse oocyte quality

Publication date: September 2017 Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 110 Author(s): Roohi Jeelani, Sana N. Khan, Faten Shaeib, Hamid-Reza Kohan-Ghadr, Sarah R. Aldhaheri, Tohid Najafi, Mili Thakur, Robert Morris, Husam M. Abu-Soud Cyclophosphamide (CTX) is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used to treat ovarian, breast, and hematological cancers as well as autoimmune disorders. Such chemotherapy is associated with reproductive failure and premature ovarian insufficiency. The mechanism by which CTX and/or its main metabolite, acrolein, affect female fertility remains unclear, but it is thought to be caused by an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we investigated the effect of CTX on metaphase II mouse oocytes obtained from treated animals (120mg/kg, 24h of single treatment), and oocytes directly exposed to increasing concentrations of CTX and acrolein (n=480; 0, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100μM) with and without cumulus cells (CCs) for 45min which correlates to the time of maximum peak plasma concentrations after administration. Oocytes were fixed and subjected to indirect immunofluorescence and were scored based on microtubule spindle structure (MT) and chromosomal alignment (CH). Generation of ROS was evaluated using the Cellular Reactive Oxygen Species Detection Assay Kit. Deterioration of oocyte quality was noted when oocytes were obtained from CTX treated mice along with CTX and acrolein treated oocytes in a dose-dependent manner as shown by an increase in poor scores. Acrolein had an impact at a significantly lower level as compared to CTX, plateau at 10μM versus 50μM, respectively. These variation is are associated with the higher amount of ROS generated with acrolein exposure as compared to CTX (p<0.05). Utilization of antioxidant therapy and acrolein scavengers may mitigate the damaging effects of these compounds and help women undergoing such treatment. Graphical abstract

read article »


Enhanced plasma protein carbonylation in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes

Publication date: July 2017 Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 108 Author(s): Alžběta Hlaváčková, Jana Štikarová, Kristýna Pimková, Leona Chrastinová, Pavel Májek, Roman Kotlín, Jaroslav Čermák, Jiří Suttnar, Jan Evangelista Dyr Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) represent a heterogeneous group of pre-leukemic disorders, characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and the abnormal blood cell development of one or more lineages. Oxidative stress, as an important factor in the carcinogenesis of onco-hematological diseases, is also one of the known factors involved in the pathogenesis of MDS. An increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may lead to the oxidation of DNA, lipids, and proteins, thereby causing cell damage. Protein carbonylation caused by ROS is defined as an irreversible post-translational oxidative modification of amino acid side chains, and could play an important role in signaling processes. The detection of protein carbonyl groups is a specific useful marker of oxidative stress. In this study, we examined 32 patients divided into three different subtypes of MDS according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification criteria as refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts (RARS), refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (RCMD), refractory anemia with excess blasts-1,2 (RAEB-1,2). We found significant differences in protein carbonylation between the group of all MDS patients and healthy controls (P=0.0078). Furthermore, carbonylated protein levels were significantly elevated in RARS patients compared to healthy donors (P=0.0013) and to RCMD patients (P=0.0277). We also found a significant difference in the total iron binding capacity (TIBC) between individual subgroups of MDS patients (P=0.0263). Moreover, TIBC was decreased in RARS patients compared to RCMD patients (P=0.0203). TIBC moderately negatively correlated with carbonyl levels (r=−0.5978, P=0.0054) in the MDS patients as a whole. Additionally we observed changes in the carbonylated proteins

read article »


Ergothioneine products derived by superoxide oxidation in endothelial cells exposed to high-glucose

Publication date: July 2017 Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 108 Author(s): Luigi Servillo, Nunzia D’Onofrio, Rosario Casale, Domenico Cautela, Alfonso Giovane, Domenico Castaldo, Maria Luisa Balestrieri Ergothioneine (Egt), 2-mercapto-L-histidine betaine (ESH), is a dietary component acting as antioxidant and cytoprotectant. In vitro studies demonstrated that Egt, a powerful scavenger of hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anion, hypochlorous acid and peroxynitrite, protects vascular function against oxidative damages, thus preventing endothelial dysfunction. In order to delve the peculiar oxidative behavior of Egt, firstly identified in cell free-systems, experiments were designed to identify the Egt oxidation products when endothelial cells (EC) benefit of its protection against high-glucose (hGluc). HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses revealed a decrease in the intracellular GSH levels and an increase in the ophthalmic acid (OPH) levels during hGluc treatment. Interestingly, in the presence of Egt, the decrease of the GSH levels was lower than in cells treated with hGluc alone, and this effect was paralleled by lower OPH levels. Egt was also effective in reducing the cytotoxicity of H2O2 and paraquat (PQT), an inducer of superoxide anion production, showing a similar time-dependent pattern of GSH and OPH levels, although with peaks occurring at different times. Importantly, Egt oxidation generated not only hercynine (EH) but also the sulfonic acid derivative (ESO3H) whose amounts were dependent on the oxidative stress employed. Furthermore, cell-free experiments confirmed the formation of both EH and ESO3H when Egt was reacted with superoxide anion. In summary, these data, by identifying the EH and ESO3H formation in EC exposed to hGluc, highlight the cellular antioxidant properties of Egt, whose peculiar redox behavior makes it an attractive candidate for the prevention of oxidative stress-associated endothelial dysfunction during hyperglycemia. Graphical abstract

read article »


Redox Biology

Quantitative biology of hydrogen peroxide signaling

Publication date: October 2017 Source:Redox Biology, Volume 13 Author(s): Fernando Antunes, Paula Matos Brito Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) controls signaling pathways in cells by oxidative modulation of the activity of redox sensitive proteins denominated redox switches. Here, quantitative biology concepts are applied to review how H2O2 fulfills a key role in information transmission. Equations described lay the foundation of H2O2 signaling, give new insights on H2O2 signaling mechanisms, and help to learn new information from common redox signaling experiments. A key characteristic of H2O2 signaling is that the ratio between reduction and oxidation of redox switches determines the range of H2O2 concentrations to which they respond. Thus, a redox switch with low H2O2-dependent oxidability and slow reduction rate responds to the same range of H2O2 concentrations as a redox switch with high H2O2-dependent oxidability, but that is rapidly reduced. Yet, in the first case the response time is slow while in the second case is rapid. H2O2 sensing and transmission of information can be done directly or by complex mechanisms in which oxidation is relayed between proteins before oxidizing the final regulatory redox target. In spite of being a very simple molecule, H2O2 has a key role in cellular signaling, with the reliability of the information transmitted depending on the inherent chemical reactivity of redox switches, on the presence of localized H2O2 pools, and on the molecular recognition between redox switches and their partners. Graphical abstract

read article »


HMGB1-RAGE pathway drives peroxynitrite signaling-induced IBD-like inflammation in murine nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

Publication date: October 2017 Source:Redox Biology, Volume 13 Author(s): Varun Chandrashekaran, Ratanesh K. Seth, Diptadip Dattaroy, Firas Alhasson, Jacek Ziolenka, James Carson, Franklin G. Berger, Balaraman Kalyanaraman, Anna Mae Diehl, Saurabh Chatterjee Recent clinical studies found a strong association of colonic inflammation and Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-like phenotype with NonAlcoholic Fatty liver Disease (NAFLD) yet the mechanisms remain unknown. The present study identifies high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) as a key mediator of intestinal inflammation in NAFLD and outlines a detailed redox signaling mechanism for such a pathway. NAFLD mice showed liver damage and release of elevated HMGB1 in systemic circulation and increased intestinal tyrosine nitration that was dependent on NADPH oxidase. Intestines from NAFLD mice showed higher Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation and proinflammatory cytokine release, an outcome strongly dependent on the existence of NAFLD pathology and NADPH oxidase. Mechanistically intestinal epithelial cells showed the HMGB1 activation of TLR-4 was both NADPH oxidase and peroxynitrite dependent with the latter being formed by the activation of NADPH oxidase. Proinflammatory cytokine production was significantly blocked by the specific peroxynitrite scavenger phenyl boronic acid (FBA), AKT inhibition and NADPH oxidase inhibitor Apocynin suggesting NADPH oxidase-dependent peroxynitrite is a key mediator in TLR-4 activation and cytokine release via an AKT dependent pathway. Studies to ascertain the mechanism of HMGB1-mediated NADPH oxidase activation showed a distinct role of Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) as the use of inhibitors targeted against RAGE or use of deformed HMGB1 protein prevented NADPH oxidase activation, peroxynitrite formation, TLR4 activation and finally cytokine release. Thus, in conclusion the present study identifies a novel role of HMGB1 mediated inflammatory pathway that is RAGE and redox signaling depen

read article »


Bi-directionally protective communication between neurons and astrocytes under ischemia

Publication date: October 2017 Source:Redox Biology, Volume 13 Author(s): Xiao-Mei Wu, Christopher Qian, Yu-Fu Zhou, Yick-Chun Yan, Qian-Qian Luo, Wing-Ho Yung, Fa-Li Zhang, Li-Rong Jiang, Zhong Ming Qian, Ya Ke The extensive existing knowledge on bi-directional communication between astrocytes and neurons led us to hypothesize that not only ischemia-preconditioned (IP) astrocytes can protect neurons but also IP neurons protect astrocytes from lethal ischemic injury. Here, we demonstrated for the first time that neurons have a significant role in protecting astrocytes from ischemic injury. The cultured medium from IP neurons (IPcNCM) induced a remarkable reduction in LDH and an increase in cell viability in ischemic astrocytes in vitro. Selective neuronal loss by kainic acid injection induced a significant increase in apoptotic astrocyte numbers in the brain of ischemic rats in vivo. Furthermore, TUNEL analysis, DNA ladder assay, and the measurements of ROS, GSH, pro- and anti-apoptotic factors, anti-oxidant enzymes and signal molecules in vitro and/or in vivo demonstrated that IP neurons protect astrocytes by an EPO-mediated inhibition of pro-apoptotic signals, activation of anti-apoptotic proteins via the P13K/ERK/STAT5 pathways and activation of anti-oxidant proteins via up-regulation of anti-oxidant enzymes. We demonstrated the existence of astro-protection by IP neurons under ischemia and proposed that the bi-directionally protective communications between cells might be a common activity in the brain or peripheral organs under most if not all pathological conditions.

read article »


Increased susceptibility of IDH2-deficient mice to dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis

Publication date: October 2017 Source:Redox Biology, Volume 13 Author(s): Hanvit Cha, Seoyoon Lee, Sung Hwan Kim, Hyunjin Kim, Dong-Seok Lee, Hyun-Shik Lee, Jin Hyup Lee, Jeen-Woo Park Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic, relapsing, immunological, inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). It has been reported that UC, which is studied using a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis model, is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the apoptosis of intestine epithelial cells (IEC). Mitochondrial NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2) has been reported as an essential enzyme in the mitochondrial antioxidant system via generation of NADPH. Therefore, we evaluated the role of IDH2 in DSS-induced colitis using IDH2-deficient (IDH2-/-) mice. We observed that DSS-induced colitis in IDH2-/- mice was more severe than that in wild-type IDH2+/+ mice. Our results also suggest that IDH2 deficiency exacerbates PUMA-mediated apoptosis, resulting from NF-κB activation regulated by histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. In addition, DSS-induced colitis is ameliorated by an antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) through attenuation of oxidative stress, resulting from deficiency of the IDH2 gene. In conclusion, deficiency of IDH2 leads to increased mitochondrial ROS levels, which inhibits HDAC activity, and the activation of NF-κB via acetylation is enhanced by attenuated HDAC activity, which causes PUMA-mediated apoptosis of IEC in DSS-induced colitis. The present study supported the rationale for targeting IDH2 as an important cancer chemoprevention strategy, particularly in the prevention of colorectal cancer. Graphical abstract

read article »


Catalase as a regulator of reactive sulfur metabolism; a new interpretation beyond hydrogen peroxide✩

Publication date: August 2017 Source:Redox Biology, Volume 12 Author(s): Christopher G. Kevil Graphical abstract

read article »