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Free Radical Biology and Medicine (FRBM)

Down-regulation of NOX2 activity in phagocytes mediated by ATM-kinase dependent phosphorylation

Publication date: December 2017 Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 113 Author(s): Sylvain Beaumel, Antoine Picciocchi, Franck Debeurme, Corinne Vivès, Anne-Marie Hesse, Myriam Ferro, Didier Grunwald, Heather Stieglitz, Pahk Thepchatri, Susan M.E. Smith, Franck Fieschi, Marie José Stasia NADPH oxidases (NOX) have many biological roles, but their regulation to control production of potentially toxic ROS molecules remains unclear. A previously identified insertion sequence of 21 residues (called NIS) influences NOX activity, and its predicted flexibility makes it a good candidate for providing a dynamic switch controlling the NOX active site. We constructed NOX2 chimeras in which NIS had been deleted or exchanged with those from other NOXs (NIS1, 3 and 4). All contained functional heme and were expressed normally at the plasma membrane of differentiated PLB-985 cells. However, NOX2-ΔNIS and NOX2-NIS1 had neither NADPH-oxidase nor reductase activity and exhibited abnormal translocation of p47 phox and p67 phox to the phagosomal membrane. This suggested a functional role of NIS. Interestingly after activation, NOX2-NIS3 cells exhibited superoxide overproduction compared with wild-type cells. Paradoxically, the Vmax of purified unstimulated NOX2-NIS3 was only one-third of that of WT-NOX2. We therefore hypothesized that post-translational events regulate NOX2 activity and differ between NOX2-NIS3 and WT-NOX2. We demonstrated that Ser486, a phosphorylation target of ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM kinase) located in the NIS of NOX2 (NOX2-NIS), was phosphorylated in purified cytochrome b 558 after stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). Moreover, ATM kinase inhibition and a NOX2 Ser486Ala mutation enhanced NOX activity whereas a Ser486Glu mutation inhibited it. Thus, the absence of Ser486 in NIS3 could explain the superoxide overproduction in the NOX2-NIS3 mutant. These results suggest that PMA-stimulated NOX2-NIS phosphorylation by ATM kinase causes

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Insulin-dependent metabolic and inotropic responses in the heart are modulated by hydrogen peroxide from NADPH-oxidase isoforms NOX2 and NOX4

Publication date: December 2017 Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 113 Author(s): Benjamin Steinhorn, Juliano L. Sartoretto, Andrea Sorrentino, Natalia Romero, Hermann Kalwa, E. Dale Abel, Thomas Michel Rationale Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a stable reactive oxygen species (ROS) that has long been implicated in insulin signal transduction in adipocytes. However, H2O2's role in mediating insulin's effects on the heart are unknown. Objective We investigated the role of H2O2 in activating insulin-dependent changes in cardiac myocyte metabolic and inotropic pathways. The sources of insulin-dependent H2O2 generation were also studied. Methods and results In addition to the canonical role of insulin in modulating cardiac metabolic pathways, we found that insulin also inhibited beta adrenergic-induced increases in cardiac contractility. Catalase and NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitors blunted activation of insulin-responsive kinases Akt and mTOR and attenuated beta adrenergic receptor-mediated responses. These insulin responses were lost in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes, suggesting a role for these H2O2-dependent pathways in the diabetic heart. The H2O2-sensitive fluorescent biosensor HyPer revealed rapid increases in cytosolic and caveolar H2O2 concentrations in response to insulin treatment, which were blocked by NOX inhibitors and attenuated in NOX2 KO and NOX4 KO mice. In NOX2 KO cardiac myocytes, insulin-mediated phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR was blocked, while these responses were unaffected in cardiac myocytes from NOX4 KO mice. In contrast, insulin's effects on contractility were lost in cardiac myocytes from NOX4 KO animals but were retained in NOX2 KO mice. Conclusions These studies identify a proximal point of bifurcation in cardiac insulin signaling through the simultaneous activation of both NOX2 and NOX4. Each NOX isoform generates H2O2 in cardiac myocytes with distinct time courses, with H2O2 derived from NOX2 augmenting Akt-dependent metabolic effects of insulin,

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Nox4 regulates the eNOS uncoupling process in aging endothelial cells

Publication date: December 2017 Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 113 Author(s): Hwa-Young Lee, Hafiz Maher Ali Zeeshan, Hyung-Ryong Kim, Han-Jung Chae ROS and its associated signaling contribute to vascular aging-associated endothelial disturbance. Since the non-effective endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) coupling status is related to vascular aging-related phenotypes, eNOS coupled/uncoupled system signaling was studied in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Nitric oxide (NO) and eNOS Ser1177 were significantly decreased, whereas O2 - (superoxide anion radical) increased with passage number. In aging cells, NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), one of the main superoxide generating enzymes, and its associated protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) chaperone were highly activated, and the resultant ER redox imbalance leads to disturbance of protein folding capability, namely endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, ultimately inducing dissociation between HSP90 and IRE-1α or PERK, decreasing HSP90 stability and dissociating the binding of eNOS from the HSP90 and leading to eNOS uncoupling. Through chemical and Nox4 siRNA approaches, Nox4 and its linked ER stress were shown to mainly contribute to eNOS uncoupling and its associated signaling, suggesting that Nox4 and its related ER stress signaling are key signals of the aging process in endothelial cells. Graphical abstract

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Pharmacologic ascorbate induces neuroblastoma cell death by hydrogen peroxide mediated DNA damage and reduction in cancer cell glycolysis

Publication date: December 2017 Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 113 Author(s): Enlong Ma, Ping Chen, Heather M. Wilkins, Tao Wang, Russell H. Swerdlow, Qi Chen An ascorbate-mediated production of oxidative stress has been shown to retard tumor growth. Subsequent glycolysis inhibition has been suggested. Here, we further define the mechanisms relevant to this observation. Ascorbate was cytotoxic to human neuroblastoma cells through the production of H2O2, which led to ATP depletion, inhibited GAPDH, and non-apoptotic and non-autophagic cell death. The mechanism of cytotoxicity is different when PARP-dependent DNA repair machinery is active or inhibited. Ascorbate-generated H2O2 damaged DNA, activated PARP, depleted NAD+, and reduced glycolysis flux. NAD+ supplementation prevented ATP depletion and cell death, while treatment with a PARP inhibitor, olaparib, preserved NAD+ and ATP levels but led to increased DNA double-strand breakage and did not prevent ascorbate-induced cell death. These data indicate that in cells with an intact PARP-associated DNA repair system, ascorbate-induced cell death is caused by NAD+ and ATP depletion, while in the absence of PARP activation ascorbate-induced cell death still occurs but is a consequence of ROS-induced DNA damage. In a mouse xenograft model, intraperitoneal ascorbate inhibited neuroblastoma tumor growth and prolonged survival. Collectively, these data suggest that ascorbate could be effective in the treatment of glycolysis-dependent tumors. Also, in cancers that use alternative energy metabolism pathways, combining a PARP inhibitor with ascorbate treatment could be useful. Graphical abstract

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Suppressed ubiquitination of Nrf2 by p47phox contributes to Nrf2 activation

Publication date: December 2017 Source:Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 113 Author(s): Kyun Ha Kim, Ruxana T. Sadikot, Ji Yeon Lee, Han-Sol Jeong, Yu-Kyoung Oh, Timothy S. Blackwell, Myungsoo Joo Although critical in phagocytosis in innate immunity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) collaterally inflict damage to host phagocytes because they indiscriminate targets. Since Nrf2 increases the expression of anti-oxidant enzymes that nullifies ROS, ROS activating Nrf2 is a critical negative regulatory step for countering the deleterious effects of ROS. Here, we postulate whether, along with ROS activating Nrf2, NADPH oxidase components also participate in direct activation of Nrf2, contributing to protection from ROS. Our results show that the p47phox of the NADPH oxidase, but not p65phox or p40phox, physically binds to Nrf2, activating the Nrf2 function. p47phox binding to Nrf2/Keap1 complex suppresses the ubiquitination of Nrf2, while p47phox becomes ubiquitinated by Keap1. p47phox increases the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and the expression of Nrf2-dependent genes, whereas genetic ablation of p47phox decreases the expression of those genes. In a lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung inflammation mouse model, selective expression of p47phox in mouse lungs induces the expression of Nrf2-dependent genes and is sufficient to suppress neutrophilic lung inflammation. Therefore, our findings suggest that p47phox is a novel regulator of Nrf2 function. Graphical abstract

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Redox Biology

Short overview on metabolomics approach to study pathophysiology of oxidative stress in cancer

Publication date: April 2018 Source:Redox Biology, Volume 14 Author(s): Luka Andrisic, Danuta Dudzik, Coral Barbas, Lidija Milkovic, Tilman Grune, Neven Zarkovic Association of oxidative stress with carcinogenesis is well known, but not understood well, as is pathophysiology of oxidative stress generated during different types of anti-cancer treatments. Moreover, recent findings indicate that cancer associated lipid peroxidation might eventually help defending adjacent nonmalignant cells from cancer invasion. Therefore, untargeted metabolomics studies designed for advanced translational and clinical studies are needed to understand the existing paradoxes in oncology, including those related to controversial usage of antioxidants aiming to prevent or treat cancer. In this short review we have tried to put emphasis on the importance of pathophysiology of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in cancer development in relation to metabolic adaptation of particular types of cancer allowing us to conclude that adaptation to oxidative stress is one of the main driving forces of cancer pathophysiology. With the help of metabolomics many novel findings are being achieved thus encouraging further scientific breakthroughs. Combined with targeted qualitative and quantitative methods, especially immunochemistry, further research might reveal bio-signatures of individual patients and respective malignant diseases, leading to individualized treatment approach, according to the concepts of modern integrative medicine.

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Cytoprotective mechanisms of DJ-1 against oxidative stress through modulating ERK1/2 and ASK1 signal transduction

Publication date: April 2018 Source:Redox Biology, Volume 14 Author(s): Stephanie E. Oh, M. Maral Mouradian DJ-1 is a highly conserved multifunctional protein linked to both neurodegeneration and neoplasia. Among its various activities is an antioxidant property leading to cytoprotection under oxidative stress conditions. This is associated with the ability to modulate signal transduction events that determine how the cell regulates normal processes such as growth, senescence, apoptosis, and autophagy in order to adapt to environmental stimuli and stresses. Alterations in DJ-1 expression or function can disrupt homeostatic signaling networks and initiate cascades that play a role in the pathogenesis of conditions such as Parkinson's disease and cancer. DJ-1 plays a major role in various signaling pathways. Related to its anti-oxidant properties, it mediates cell survival and proliferation by activating the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) pathway and attenuates cell death signaling by inhibiting apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) activation. Here, we review the ways through which DJ-1 regulates these pathways, focusing on how its regulation of signal transduction contributes to cellular homeostasis and the pathologic states that result from their dysregulation.

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A review of the basics of mitochondrial bioenergetics, metabolism, and related signaling pathways in cancer cells: Therapeutic targeting of tumor mitochondria with lipophilic cationic compounds

Publication date: April 2018 Source:Redox Biology, Volume 14 Author(s): Balaraman Kalyanaraman, Gang Cheng, Micael Hardy, Olivier Ouari, Marcos Lopez, Joy Joseph, Jacek Zielonka, Michael B. Dwinell The present review is a sequel to the previous review on cancer metabolism published in this journal. This review focuses on the selective antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of mitochondria-targeted therapeutics (MTTs) in cancer cells. Emerging research reveals a key role of mitochondrial respiration on tumor proliferation. Previously, a mitochondria-targeted nitroxide was shown to selectively inhibit colon cancer cell proliferation at submicromolar levels. This review is centered on the therapeutic use of MTTs and their bioenergetic profiling in cancer cells. Triphenylphosphonium cation conjugated to a parent molecule (e.g., vitamin-E or chromanol, ubiquinone, and metformin) via a linker alkyl chain is considered an MTT. MTTs selectively and potently inhibit proliferation of cancer cells and, in some cases, induce cytotoxicity. MTTs inhibit mitochondrial complex I activity and induce mitochondrial stress in cancer cells through generation of reactive oxygen species. MTTs in combination with glycolytic inhibitors synergistically inhibit tumor cell proliferation. This review discusses how signaling molecules traditionally linked to tumor cell proliferation affect tumor metabolism and bioenergetics (glycolysis, TCA cycle, and glutaminolysis).

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A reciprocal relationship between reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dynamics in neurodegeneration

Publication date: April 2018 Source:Redox Biology, Volume 14 Author(s): Clara Hiu-Ling Hung, Sally Shuk-Yee Cheng, Yuen-Ting Cheung, Suthicha Wuwongse, Natalie Qishan Zhang, Yuen-Shan Ho, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang Mitochondrial fragmentation due to fission/fusion imbalance has often been linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in neurodegeneration. Conventionally, it is believed that once mitochondrial morphology shifts away from its physiological tubular form, mitochondria become defective and downstream apoptotic signaling pathways are triggered. However, our study shows that beta-amyloid (Aβ) induces morphological changes in mitochondria where they become granular-shaped and are distinct from fragmented mitochondria in terms of both morphology and functions. Accumulation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species triggers granular mitochondria formation, while mitoTEMPO (a mitochondria-targeted superoxide scavenger) restores tubular mitochondrial morphology within Aβ-treated neurons. Interestingly, modulations of mitochondria fission and fusion by genetic and pharmacological tools attenuated not only the induction of granular mitochondria, but also mitochondrial superoxide levels in Aβ−treated neurons. Our study shows a reciprocal relationship between mitochondrial dynamics and reactive oxygen species and provides a new potential therapeutic target at early stages of neurodegenerative disease pathogenesis. Graphical abstract

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Reduced levels of methyltransferase DNMT2 sensitize human fibroblasts to oxidative stress and DNA damage that is accompanied by changes in proliferation-related miRNA expression

Publication date: April 2018 Source:Redox Biology, Volume 14 Author(s): Anna Lewinska, Jagoda Adamczyk-Grochala, Ewa Kwasniewicz, Anna Deregowska, Ewelina Semik, Tomasz Zabek, Maciej Wnuk Methyltransferase DNMT2 is suggested to be involved in the regulation of numerous processes, however its biological significance and underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In the present study, we have used WI-38 and BJ human fibroblasts as an in vitro model system to investigate the effects of siRNA-based DNMT2 silencing. DNMT2-depleted cells were found to be sensitive to oxidative stress conditions as judged by increased production of reactive oxygen species and susceptible to DNA damage that resulted in the inhibition of cell proliferation. DNMT2 silencing promoted upregulation of proliferation-related and tumor suppressor miRNAs, namely miR-28-3p, miR-34a-3p, miR-30b-5p, miR-29b-3p, miR-200c-3p, miR-28-5p, miR-379-5p, miR-382-5p, miR-194-5p, miR-193b-3p and miR-409-3p. Moreover, DNMT2 silencing induced cellular senescence and DNMT2 levels were elevated in replicatively senescent cells. Taken together, we found that DNMT2 may take part in the regulation of cell proliferation and longevity in human fibroblasts and speculate that the manipulation of DNMT2 levels that limits cell proliferation may be potentially useful anticancer strategy.

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